Haeck, Catherine, Pare, Samuel, Lefebvre, Pierre et Merrigan, Philip. 2019. «Paid Parental Leave: Leaner Might Be Better ». Canadian Public Policy, vol. 45, no 2, p. 212-238.
Intentions : «In this article, [the authors] provide an evaluation of the Quebec Parental Insurance Program (QPIP) relative to the Canadian parental leave program.» (p. 212)
Échantillon/Matériau : Les données qu’utilisent les auteurs proviennent de quatre sources, soit l’Enquête longitudinale nationale sur les enfants et les jeunes, l’Enquête sur les jeunes Canadiens, la Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec ainsi que l’Institut de la statistique du Québec.
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
«[The] results suggest that after the introduction of the QPIP, a larger share of mothers benefited from paid leave after birth. [The authors] find that, on average, mothers in Quebec […] spent an additional 10 days with their child and also increased breastfeeding by about 10 days. Post-reform, mothers and fathers claimed higher benefits. The overall gains in disposable income while on leave are positive but modest when the overall loss of income from work is accounted for. The effects on children’s health, behaviour, and cognitive development are generally positive but small and not always significant. These average effects possibly mask important differences between mothers. Results by maternal education reveal that most of the effects [the authors] uncover are driven by highly educated mothers and their children. Mothers with a post-secondary education spent an additional 19 days away from work, and their children have marginally better parent-reported health and behavioural outcomes. For fathers, [the authors] find that dedicating parental leave to fathers increased the participation of fathers in the program, but whether this translated into a greater involvement of fathers in the child’s life over the long run remains to be shown. […] For paternity leave policy to achieve its goal, perception in the workplace also matters.» (p. 232)
Intentions : The aim of this study is to analyze «the impact of the implementation of a 2006 daddy quota policy in Quebec, Canada on mothers’ labor market outcomes.» (p. 1)
Échantillon/Matériau : The authors used «microdata from Statistics Canada’s Survey of Labour Income Dynamics (SLID) […] for reference years 2003 – 2011, omitting data from the treatment year (2006) as [they were] unlikely to observe effects of QPIP [Quebec Parental Insurance Plan] in such an early phase of implementation.» (p. 7)
Instruments : Questionnaires
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
In light of their research, authors mention in particular «that the introduction of QPIP has improved some of mothers’ labor market outcomes in the province, with Quebec mothers exposed to the policy more likely to participate in the labor force than they would have been in the absence of the policy. Further investigation shows that much of this increased labor force participation manifests as full-time work and that mothers exposed to the policy are less likely work part-time and less likely to be unemployed. [On the other hand they] do not find evidence that the policy had a statistically significant effect on mothers’ hourly wages. […] The null result on mothers’ hourly wages could be interpreted in a number of ways. First, it is possible that QPIP simply had no discernable impact on mothers’ wages. It is also possible that it may take several years to observe substantial increases in earnings associated with increased participation in the labor force, and that [the] period of analysis is too short to capture such effects. Alternatively, the result could indicate that although QPIP’s increases mothers’ labor market activities, it does not diminish the competency bias they face in the work place […] and therefore does not result in higher wages.» (p. 21)
Paternity Leave in Québec: Between Social Objectives and Workplace Challenges
Référence bibliographique 
Harvey, Valérie et Tremblay, Diane-Gabrielle. 2018. «Paternity Leave in Québec: Between Social Objectives and Workplace Challenges ». Community, Work & Family.
Intentions : Les auteures explorent l’impact des congés de paternité prévus par le Régime québécois d’assurance parental sur la qualité de vie des pères.
Questions/Hypothèses : This article «addresses the following questions: What are the most frequent tensions experienced by fathers when they use the weeks of parental leave that are allocated to them? How did they negotiate their leave with the employer? How was the return to work after parental leave?» (p. 5)
Échantillon/Matériau : Authors «combined the results of two series of interviews that investigated fathers’ use of parental leave in Quebec. The first set of interviews was conducted in various employment sectors (including education, public service, manufacturing) and tried to understand the experience of 26 fathers who took at least four weeks of leave, home alone without the mother, who had returned to work.» (p. 7) For the second set of interviews, a «total of 31 interviews were conducted, outside the company site. The IT [information technology] sector was chosen because the challenges faced by fathers working in a male-dominated company are numerous: high pressure, overtime, frequent crunch times to finish a project.» (p. 7)
Instruments : Guides d’entretien semi-directif
Type de traitement des données : Analyse de contenu
The authors’ «interviews suggest that generally, the 5 weeks paternity leave was well accepted. However, a father who wanted to take more (as it is possible to take-up to 32 additional weeks of parental leave) took more risks because parental leave can be perceived negatively as some kind of “vacation”, which brings the company to find a replacement. After one year of parental leave, the return can be harsh for the father. The person hired to do their job while they were absent had the time to become well integrated into the team and the company; some potential promotions may have been passed up during the leave; bonuses and other advantages can be declined to a newly returned parent who has the reputation of being less engaged and involved in the success of the company. Consequently, parental leave also has an impact on parents’ priorities. [Indeed, caught] between their work and their parental obligations (child’s illness, kindergarten schedules, etc.), parents live a daily tension which can degenerate and lead to conflicts […], and a certain number of parents, including fathers, will choose to resign from their job and their company for a position where there are fewer expectations or less weekly hours of work […].» (p. 12)