Developmental Differences in Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Use of Mothers, Fathers, Best Friends, and Romantic Partners to Fulfill Attachment Needs
Référence bibliographique 
Markiewicz, Dorothy, Lawford, Heather, Doyle, Anna-Beth et Haggart, Natalie. 2006. «Developmental Differences in Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Use of Mothers, Fathers, Best Friends, and Romantic Partners to Fulfill Attachment Needs ». Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 35, no 1, p. 127-140.
Intentions : « [W]e examined adolescents’ and young adults’ reports of how key potential attachment figures were used to fulfill the three main attachment functions [’proximity-seeking, safe haven, and secure base’], and whether this differed developmentally, with gender and presence/absence of romantic partners as potential moderators. [...] A second goal of this study was to explore the role of security of attachment in the transfer of attachment to peers. » (p. 129)
Questions/Hypothèses : « We expected that across this age range [’12–15, 16–19, and 20–28 years’], parents would continue to be used as a secure base, while they would be turned to less by older adolescents and young adults for proximity and for safe haven (i.e., reassurance). Consistent with earlier findings, we expected peers to become increasingly important during this period and, thus, to find friends and romantic partners used more for attachment functions (Hazan and Zeifman, 1994). That is, we expected that close friends would fulfill attachment functions (particularly proximity-seeking and safe haven) from early adolescence onward, that in middle adolescence, romantic partners would begin to do so (particularly proximity-seeking); and that the order of transfer of the attachment-related functions would be comparable to that found previously (Fraley and Davis, 1997; Hazan and Zeifman, 1994). In addition, we expected that girls more than boys would turn to close friends for attachment related functions, and that boys would turn to fathers more than would girls. Finally, we expected those with romantic partners to turn to them more than to other target figures by young adulthood. » (p. 129)
Échantillon/Matériau : « Participants consisted of 682 students grouped into three age categories: 314 (182 female) 12–15 years; 185 (120 female) 16–19 years; 183 (108 female) 20–28 years. These samples were recruited from two English-language public high schools, two junior colleges, and a university in a large Canadian urban area. » (p. 130)
Instruments : - « General Information Questionnaire » (p. 130); - « The WHOTO Questionnaire (Hazan et al., 1991) » (p. 130); - « The relationship questionnaire (RQ), adapted from Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991) » (p. 131).
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
« Adolescents and young adults (three age groups: 12–15, 16–19, and 20–28 years) reported their use of parents, and peers to fulfill attachment functions (proximity-seeking, safe haven, and secure base.) The use of each target figure varied with age and attachment function. Mothers were an important source of security across this age range. They were used as secure base consistently more than fathers or peers for all age groups, and regardless of whether or not participants had romantic partners; but were used less for proximity and safe haven by the two older groups. Best friends were used most and more than others as a safe haven; but were used less by young adults (vs. early adolescents) and by older adolescents with romantic partners. Romantic partners were used most and more than others for proximity; but were used less by early adolescents than by older participants. Fathers were selected less than other targets for all attachment functions. Those with romantic partners turned to them more than to others, and young adults selected their romantic partners as much as friends for safe haven. Those insecurely attached to mother turned to her less and to romantic partners more than did those securely attached. Implications for developmental changes in adolescent attachments are discussed. » (p. 127)