Did Segregation Increase as the City Expanded? The Case of Montreal, 1881-1901
Référence bibliographique 
Gilliland, Jason A., Olson, Sherry H. et Gauvreau, Danielle. 2011. «Did Segregation Increase as the City Expanded? The Case of Montreal, 1881-1901 ». Social Science History, vol. 35, no 4, p. 465-503.
Intentions : «In this article we examine how social differences were reproduced in the urban landscape of Montreal and attempt to unravel some of the processes that generated and maintained both segregation and diversity at multiple scales.» (p. 467)
Échantillon/Matériau : The authors used primary sources. «To observe the spatial expression of social differences in Montreal over time, we rely primarily on two sets of digital data from the census of Canada, 1881 and 1901, integrated in a multilayered historical GIS known as MAP.» (p. 468)
Instruments : Questionnaire
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
According to the authors, «[s]ocial reproduction can be thought of as a dynamic equilibrium: high levels of segregation persisted in Montreal between 1881 and 1901 along several distinct social dimensions, despite growth of the system. Individuals moved in and out of households and households in and out of dwellings at astonishing rates. At a census date, a third of what seem to be nuclear families were what we would today describe as “reconstituted,” and a sixth of the households lodged unrelated boarders. In a city built for diversity, a well-oiled legal system facilitated the year- to- year decision making of households and the mutual adaptation of extended families to changes in circumstance. Both segregation and diversity were built into the urban habitat. So long as the material habitat was extended—along the same axes, to roughly the same heights, densities, and lot coverages, with the same building typology and the same potential for neighboring—it reproduced the same patterns of segregation among inhabitants and the same levels of social diversity. Neighboring was expressed at the same scale, and annual turnover ensured reproduction of persistent household preferences along multiple dimensions of personal identity.» (p. 496) Note : Cette étude aborde les répercussions des relations familiales sur l’urbanisation de la ville de Montréal.
Peopling the North American City: Montreal, 1840-1900
Référence bibliographique 
Olson, Sherry H. et Thornton, Patricia. 2011. Peopling the North American City: Montreal, 1840-1900. Montreal & Kingston: Les Presses Universitaires McGill-Queen’s.
Intentions : «Many North American cities trace their population booms to the nineteenth century when people flooded into emerging industrializing urban centres in search of better lives. Peopling the North American City examines this phenomenon in Montreal, using information from a thousand couples to construct both an intimate portrait and a compelling overview of life in a nineteenth-century metropolis.» (quatrième de couverture)
Échantillon/Matériau : Les auteures utilisent plusieurs sources premières comme des fonds d’archives de la ville, des recensements, des registres d’actes notariés, des registres judiciaires, des cartes, etc. De plus, les auteurs dialoguent avec l’historiographie sur le sujet.
Type de traitement des données : Analyse de contenu
The authors use a «[…] sampling of twelve surnames to track the comings and goings, births, deaths, and marriages of the city’s inhabitants. The book demonstrates the importance of individual decisions by outlining the circumstances in which people decided where to move, when to marry, and what work to do. Integrating social and spatial analysis, the authors provide insights into the relationships among the city’s three cultural communities; show how inequalities of voice, purchasing power, and access to real property were maintained; and provide first-hand evidence of the impact of city living and poverty on families, health, and futures. Their findings [...] challenge presumptions about the cultural ‘assimilation’ of migrants as well as our understanding of urban life in nineteenth-century North America.» (quatrième de couverture)