Is the Secure Base Phenomenon Evident Here, There, and Anywhere? A Cross-Cultural Study of Child Behavior and Experts’ Definitions
Référence bibliographique 
Posada, German, Ting, Lu, Trumbell, Jill, Kaloustian, Garene, Plata, Sandra J., Pena, Paola P., Perez, Jennifer, Coppola, Gabrielle, Constantini, Alessandro, Cassibba, Rosalinda, Noblega, Magaly, Haya, Ines M., Pedraglio, Claudia, Trudel, Marcel, Tereno, Susana, Dugravier, Romain, Kondo-ikemura, Kiyomi, Verissimo, Manuela, Santos, Antonio J., Monteiro, Ligia et Lay, Keng-Ling. 2013. «Is the Secure Base Phenomenon Evident Here, There, and Anywhere? A Cross-Cultural Study of Child Behavior and Experts’ Definitions ». Child Development, vol. 84, no 6, p. 1896-1905.
Intentions : «To offer a new test of the universality hypothesis […] we put together a collaborative observational study of child–mother interactions in naturalistic settings to investigate whether children’s behavior is organized in ways that indicate use of the mother as a secure base.» (p. 1897)
Échantillon/Matériau : «A total of 547 children across nine participating countries were observed at their homes.» (p. 1898) Au Canada, ce sont 63 enfants de la région de Montréal qui ont participé. «Information about child secure base behavior was collected in different sociocultural contexts by independent labs that were conducting independent research projects with different goals. Child–mother dyads were observed by the authors and their trained research assistants or students.» (p. 1898)
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
«The secure base phenomenon is at the core of Bowlby and Ainsworth’s analysis of the infant–mother relationship. […] The hallmark of secure base behavior is the seemingly purposeful balance between excursions or explorations away from the caregiver and proximity seeking at different times and across contexts. This phenomenon is hypothesized to be observable in children who have been exposed to ordinary parental care. A child will use her or his main caregiver(s) as a secure base from which to explore and learn about her or his surroundings, and to which to come back, if an emergency situation arises, or if the child is fatigued or ill (Bowlby, 1988).» (p. 1896-1897) «In conclusion, trained observers’ descriptions of young children (1–6 years) […] indicate that cross-culturally, children use their mothers as a secure base. They offer supporting data in a new set of samples (i.e., Canada, France, Italy, Peru, Portugal, and Taiwan) and replicating evidence for previously studied countries (i.e., Colombia, Japan, and the United States). They also extend previous results on infants to preschoolers. Findings provide confirmatory evidence for the universality hypothesis concerning attachment relationships.» (p. 1904)