Disrupted Moral Order: A Conceptual Framework for Differentiating Reactions to Loss and Trauma
Référence bibliographique 
Rafman, Sandra, Canfield, Joyce, Barbas, Jose et Kaczorowski, Janusz. 1996. «Disrupted Moral Order: A Conceptual Framework for Differentiating Reactions to Loss and Trauma ». International Journal of Behavioral Development, vol. 19, no 4, p. 817-829.
Intentions : « We examined whether the concept of a disrupted moral dimension complements concepts related to trauma and mourning in differentiating between two groups of children who have experienced losses due to war; one group have been referred for psychological consultation and one group, not so referred. » (p. 818)
Questions/Hypothèses : « [...] children’s difficulty in coming to terms with evil intentions may parallel parents’ difficulties in addressing moral ambiguities. We anticipated that these difficulties would be expressed in the parents’ narratives of war-related events in terms of ease of disclosure, ambiguity versus clarity and coherence, and explicitness versus secrecy. » (p. 819)
Échantillon/Matériau : - « Community-based Group : Children in the community-based group were selected using the following criteria : age (4 to 6 years), exposure to violent civil strife, the loss of a parent to violent death of disappearance due to war, and nonclinical status. They had not been referred nor had they solicited psychological help. Fifteen children (9 boys, 6 girls) and their families were recruited [...]. The children had emigrated from El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala, then at civil war. Approximately two years had elapsed since the parental death or disappearance. The mean age of the children was 66 months. [...] - Referred Group. The referred group consisted of children who were drawn from a larger sample of children who had lived in war-torn zones and who had sought psychological consultation at a paediatric hospital in a metropolitain center in Canada. The criteria of selection to the present study consisted of a child having witnessed or experiences within the last three years death and/or disappearance of a family member due to war. The referred group consisted of 7 children (all boys), aged 3 to 10 years, who had emigrated from several countries at war, including Afghanistan, El Salvador, Guatemala, Israel, and Kuwait. » (p. 820)
Instruments : - Entrevues familiales; - Jeux.
Type de traitement des données : Analyse de contenu
« To discern what turns a child victim of war into a patient, categories relevant to a disrupted moral dimension were applied to play sessions of two groups of children. Both groups has experienced familial loss in the context of war but differed in their clinical status : 7 children (all boys), aged 3 to 10 years, had been referred for psychological consultation and 15 community-based children (9 boys), aged 4 to 6 years, had not been referred. Both groups exhibited vulnerability and vigilance. Whereas community-based children re-enacted scenarios of parental loss, the loss of a rule-governed universe characterized the play of referred children. Roles of perpetrator, victim, and witness shifted rapidly as moral ambiguities permeated fragmented scenes. Retaliation fantasies were intense but attribution of blame uncertain. Ambiguity and secrecy distinguished parents’ narratives in the referred group. The concept of disruption in the moral order as well as the social order was useful as a framework in distinguishing children of differing clinical status. » (p. 817)