Zhang, Lihui. 2009. «Three Essays on Crime among Children and Youth». Thèse de doctorat, Halifax, Université Dalhousie, Département d’économie.
Intentions : «This thesis consists of three interrelated yet self-contained empirical essays that use large-scale individual level survey data to study the problem of crime among children and youth in Canada and the United States.» (p. xii)
Questions/Hypothèses : In the first essay, the question is «[w]hat are the most important correlates of Canadian youth outcomes, including participation in various criminal activities and academic performance or aspiration? [In the second one, it is why] is violence much more prevalent among American children than among Canadian children? [Finally in the last essay, the question is: what] is the impact of the YCJA on Canadian youth crime rates?» (p. 127)
Échantillon/Matériau : In the second essay,«[f]or the US, 1 use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79 (NLSY79) and the Child/Young Adult of NLSY 79 (CNLSY79). [...] For Canada, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) [...].» (p. 51) For the third essay, «[t]he main data used in the paper are Cycle 3, 4, 6 and 7 of the NLSCY.» (p. 91)
Instruments : Questionnaire
Type de traitement des données : Analyse statistique
According to the author, in the first essay «[a]n extensive set of explanatory variables are examined, with the following variables found to be especially important for almost all youth outcomes considered in the essay: ''cooperation'' through in-class group activities, ''peer'' group effects, and parental supervision. [...] Empirical analysis carried out in [the second] essay shows that full-time maternal employment during the first three months post-birth increases violence significantly for these children and this effect is still present even after these children become teenagers. Consistent with the very different maternity leave policies in Canada and the US, American mothers are six times as likely to start working full-time within the first three months after giving birth. This difference in post-birth maternal employment accounts for a sizeable portion of the observed US-Canada violence gap among children and youth. Finally, [in the last essay the] baseline results and a series of robustness checks show that the more lenient treatment of minor crime under the YCJA leads to a dramatic increase in mischief among Canadian youth, particularly boys. This finding should not be interpreted as suggesting that the YCJA has failed compared to its predecessor, the YOA. A well-informed assessment of the YCJA’s success or failure requires paying close attention to all relevant costs and benefits brought by this policy change [...].» (p. 127-128) Note : Cette recherche prend en compte la réalité de province du Québec et présente des statistiques sur celle-ci.