Référence bibliographique 
Claes, Michel. 1998. «Adolescents’ Closeness with Parents, Siblings, and Friends in Three Countries: Canada, Belgium, and Italy ». Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 27, no 2, p. 165-184.
« This study proposes to compare the relationship that adolescents have with members of their nuclear family (mother, father, siblings) and with their friends, in three different countries: Italy, the francophone part of Belgium, and the province of Quebec in Canada. » (p. 168)
« The subjects were recruited from three different countries: 120 subjects from Belgium, 137 from the province of Quebec in Canada, and 120 from Italy, for a total of 377 subjects. All of the subjects were native of their countries, both parents were born in either Quebec, Belgium or Italy. The sample was composed of 191 boys and 186 girls, aged 11-18 years. The subjects came from one of three scholastic levels: 129 subjects from Grade 7, 125 subjects from Grade 9, and 123 subjects from Grade 11. » (p. 169)
Semi-structured individual interviews
Type de traitement des données :
« This study compared interpersonal relationships of adolescents from Canada, Belgium, and Italy. The sample of 377 subjects was composed almost equally of boys and girls, grouped into 3 age groups ranging from 11 to 18 years. Each subject participated in a semistructured interview designed to examine the levels of closeness with the mother, father, siblings, and close friends. The study revealed important discrepancies among the adolescents from the 3 countries. Family was found to occupy a more central role in the relational world of Italian adolescents, whereas friends were found to occupy a more important place for Canadian youth. Belgian adolescents were found to adopt a middle position between these 2 extremes. Variations in cultural context and cultural practices are explored as a possible interpretation of these differences. The study also revealed significant consistencies across the 3 countries: the importance of friends in the relational life of adolescents, the privileged position of the mother in the family, and the distant position of the father. » (p. 165)