Référence bibliographique 
Hamplová, Dana et Le Bourdais, Céline. 2010. «Visible Minorities and ’White’-’non-White’ Conjugal Unions in Canadian Large Cities ». Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 33, no 9, p. 1537-1560.
«In this paper, we […] analyse unions between visible minorities and non-minority individuals (i.e. ‘White’_‘non-White’ unions).» (p. 1538)
«In this [research], we formulate four hypotheses about factors that might be associated with racial intermarriage in Canada. First, past research has shown that the rates of interracial unions vary across racial groups and that some minorities partner outside their own circle more easily than others. […] Second, we expect to find significant variations across the three metropolitan areas (Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver). […] Third, we expect that Montreal – as a part of the French province of Quebec – is likely to exhibit weaker predisposition towards interracial partnerships. […] Finally, we acknowledge that immigration status and differences between Canadian-born and foreign-born visible minorities constitute another important factor that needs to be taken into consideration.» (p. 1541-1542)
«Using the 2001 Census data, the article analyses the occurrence of White/non-White unions in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.» (p. 1537) «In total, information on 235,457 couples is available (109,245 couples in Montreal, 85,848 in Toronto, and 40,364 in Vancouver).» (p. 1543)
Type de traitement des données :
«Canada was the first country in the world to officially adopt a policy of multiculturalism. […] The relative openness towards interracial conjugal unions might indicate that the policies promoting harmonious interracial interactions are successful. […] Driedger (1996) argued that multiculturalism is most deeply rooted in the Canadian West. If multiculturalism encourages harmonious interracial relationships […] we should find the highest propensity to cross racial barriers in Vancouver. Our analysis confirms this expectation as odds of forming an interracial couple are indeed higher in Vancouver than in Toronto or Montreal. Toronto […] closely follows. Montreal seems to display the lowest openness towards interracial relationships, but this finding applies only to unions between two native-born Canadians. As we showed, the odds of crossing the White/non-White barrier vary across visible minority groups. Controlling for the number of men and women in a given visible minority, we found that Blacks in Canada have the highest odds of marrying a White person. In Toronto and Vancouver, Blacks are followed by Asian groups. In Montreal, the second and third positions are occupied by Latinos and Arabs. […] Our principal analysis was supplemented by models describing the effect of mother tongue. If the Quebec policy of pre-selecting immigrants who are likely to integrate into a Francophone society is successful, French-speaking visible minorities should intermarry more easily with French-speaking Whites. However, our data do not confirm this hypothesis. On the contrary, we found that native-born speakers of the majority language break the racial barrier more easily in Vancouver than in Montreal.» (p. 1556-1557)