Référence bibliographique 
Stack, Dale M. et Arnold, Sharon L. 1998. «Changes in Mothers’ Touch and Hand Gestures Influence Infant Behavior During Face-to-Face Interchanges ». Infant Behavior & Development, vol. 21, no 3, p. 451-468.
« Thus, the present study was designed to address the question of whether infants are sensitive to changes in maternal non-verbal behavior presented through touch and hand gestures. The objectives were to: (1) examine infants’ responses during several perturbation periods to investigate whether changes in maternal behavior presented through non-verbal channels of communication effect patterns of infant responding, and to evaluate infants’ sensitivity to subtle changes in maternal tactile-gestural behavior; (2) determine whether mothers can successfully obtain specific responses from their infants using only touch and hand gestures, suggesting a functional context for this communicative channel; and (3) assess the relationships between infant expressive behaviors and gaze during these perturbation periods. » (p. 453)
« The hypotheses follow from the predictions that mothers are effective in using touch and hand gestures to elicit specific responses from their infants, and that infants are sensitive to subtle changes in maternal touch and gesture. » (p. 454)
« The names of potential participants were identified using the birth records from a major University-teaching hospital in the Montreal community. Caregivers of full-term infant who weighed at least 2,750 grams at the time of birth and were born between 38 and 41 weeks geststional age with uncomplicated medical histories were contacted and recruited by telephone.The final sample consisted of 60 infants (mean age=22.7 weeks; SD=7.9 days), and their mothers. The majority of the families who participated were White (80 %), two-parent, intact (98.3 %) and middle-class (88 %). Specifically, the sample included Non-Hispanic white (80 %), Hispanic (8.3 %), Black (African-American; 5 %), Native American (1.6 %), and Asian/Pacific Islander (5%). » (p. 455)
Type de traitement de données :
« Sixty mothers and their 5.5-month-olds participated in 4 periods of face-to-face interaction, designed to examine whether changes in maternal touch and hand gestures influence infant behavior. Following a Normal period, infants in the experimental group received three still-face with touch periods during which mothers were provided with specific instructions. Their responses were compared with those of a control group. Differences in infant gaze and affect were revealed. Infants in the experimental group gazed more at their mothers’ faces and less at their hands during the Attention-to-face period, and smiled more during the playful Interaction period relative to infants in the control group. Moreover, associations between infant smiling and vocalizing with gaze at mothers’ faces and hands were found, and co-occurences varied as a function of period. results from this study indicate that: (1) infants are sensitive to changes in maternal touch and hand gesture; (2) when instructed, mothers appear successful in eliciting specific behaviors from their infants using only non-verbal (touch and gesture) channels of communication; (3) there are associations between infant expressive behaviors and gaze at mothers’ faces and hands during these periods. » (p. 451)