Référence bibliographique 
Thompson, Richard et Zuroff, David C. 1998. «Dependent and Self-Critical Mothers’ Response to Adolescent Autonomy and Competence ». Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 24, no 3, p. 311-324.
« The present study investigated the hypotheses that dependent parents are upset by, and responds negatively to, the autonomy of their adolescent children, whereas self-critical parents are critical and controling of their children, particularly in response to low achievement. » (p. 313)
« It was expected that dependent mothers would only feel secure in a relationship in which their daughters were dependent on them. [...] It was expected that dependent mother woul react to daughters’ behavior autonomously with anxiety, becoming punitive with their autonomous children and attempting to reassert their control. [...] As well, it was expected that mothers high in dependency would see mediocre ability as less threatening and would therefore reward daughters for seeming to require assistance. » (p. 313) « Because of the experience of harsh parenting and the conflict-filled interpesonnal styles associated with self-criticism, it was expected to be associated with a tendency to be harsh and punitive toward daughters. [...] It was also expected that reinforcement by mothers high in self-criticism would be influenced by the daughters’ ability, i.e. that they would react to mediocre ability with hostility and punitive behavior and to good ability with reinforcing behavior. [...] It was expected that self-criticism in mothers would be associated with a preference for distance in relationships with daughters and the tendency to find interactions with their daughters unsatisfaying and dysphoric. » (p. 314)
« The subjects were 49 mothers of 12- to 15-year-old girls, who were recruited from newspaper ads. [...] The participants in the study were all residents of Montreal. The daughters’ ages ranged from 12 to 15 years old, with a mean age of 13,9 yr. All but seven mothers were White English speakers [...]. All but five mothers were married and living with the fathers of the daughters taking part in the study. » (p. 314)
- Depressive experiences questionnaire (DEQ; Blatt, D’Afflitti + Quinlan, 1976);
- Profile of moods states (POMS; Lorr + McNair, 1980) (test);
- Rating manual;
- Tapes of the interactions.
Type de traitement des données :
« Although there has been some investigation of how dependent and self-critical people recall their parents, there has been little investigation of the influence of dependency and self-criticism on parental attitudes and behavior. The present study examined the relations between personality and parenting styles in 49 mothers of adolescent girls. Mothers completed measures of dependency and self-criticism and of baseline affect, then were given experimentally manipulated results of the daughter’s initial assessment of problem-solving ability’s and choice of discussion partner. Affect was assessed again. Mothers’ coached daughters on computer problem-solving puzzles. When mothers were told that their daughters had chosen a discussion partner other than themselves, dependency was associated with explicit commands and negative feedback. Self-criticism was associated with explicit commands. When mothers were told that daughters had performed at a mediocre level, dependecy was associated with positive feedback. Self-criticism was associated with explicit commands and with negative feedbak, but did not interact with experimental variables to predict coaching behavior. It was concluded that mothers in high dependecy and self-criticism relate to their daughters in ways that may foster dependency and self-criticism by thwarting their children’s attempts at autonomy or by being punitive and controlling. » (p. 311)