The Influence of Intellectual Stimulation on the Cognitive Functioning of High-Risk Preschoolers: Implications for the Transmission of Risk Across Generations

The Influence of Intellectual Stimulation on the Cognitive Functioning of High-Risk Preschoolers: Implications for the Transmission of Risk Across Generations

The Influence of Intellectual Stimulation on the Cognitive Functioning of High-Risk Preschoolers: Implications for the Transmission of Risk Across Generations

The Influence of Intellectual Stimulation on the Cognitive Functioning of High-Risk Preschoolers: Implications for the Transmission of Risk Across Generationss

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Référence bibliographique [6513]

Saltaris, Christine. 1999. «The Influence of Intellectual Stimulation on the Cognitive Functioning of High-Risk Preschoolers: Implications for the Transmission of Risk Across Generations». Mémoire de maîtrise, Montréal, Université Concordia, Département de psychologie.

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1. Objectifs


Intentions :
« Using a subsample of parents and their offspring from the Concordia High Risk Project, the general objective of the current research project was to examine one particular aspect of parenting, namely the intellectual stimulation provided by high-risk individuals to their preschool-age children. [...] the main goal of the study was to explore the role of stimulation as a potential mediating variable in the relationship between risk status within one generation and outcome in the subsequent generation. » (pp. 21-22)

Questions/Hypothèses :
- « Specifically two main questions were addressed in this study : (a) Within a high-risk sample, how do teaching style and home environment impact on the cognitive functioning of preschool-age children? (b) Does maternal childhood risk status (i.e., history of aggression and/or social withdrawal) predict the quality of maternal teaching and home environment? If so, what are the mechanisms and intervening variables involved? » (p. 22)
- « H1 : Based on previous research, it was hypothesized that maternal education and current SES would represent positive predictors of child IQ, while maternal distress would negatively affect the cognitive functioning of the children. » (p. 24)
- « H2 : In the current project, it was expected that the same tendencies would predict less than optimal scaffolding patterns. It was thought that within the teaching interaction, these risk factors would be associated with fewer attempts to stimulate the child above his or her current ability level, less sensitivity to the child’s needs, fewer suggestions provided to the child, less praise and encouragement, and greater maternal control of the task. » (p. 28)
- « H3 : Furthermore, based on the findings of Serbin, Peters et al. (1991), childhood withdrawal was expected to be a negative predictor of the quality of the home environment. » (p. 29)

2. Méthode


Échantillon/Matériau :
80 dyades mère-enfant, comprenant 43 garçons et 37 filles. L’âge moyen des mères était de 31,02 ans et celui des enfants de 4,93.

Instruments :
- Household Prestige Scale (Nock et Rossi, 1995);
- HOME inventory;
- Pupil Evaluation Inventory (PEI) (Pekarik et al., 1976).

Type de traitement des données :
Analyse statistique

3. Résumé


« The present study explored the role of intellectual stimulation as a potential mediating variable in the relationship between risk status within the parent generation and outcome in the offspring generation. [...] Theses questions were examined within a subsample of high-risk mothers and their preschool-age children from the Concordia High Risk Project, a twenty-year longitudinal investigation of lower SES individuals identified in childhood as being highly aggressive and/or withdrawn. These individuals have been shown to be at risk for various health and psychosocial difficulties during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Recently, evidence of a process of transfer of risk across generations has been gathered. Controlling for maternal education, current SES, and parenting stress, parental intellectual stimulation was shown to predict scores on a standardized measure of children’s intellectual functioning. Further, mothers’ childhood aggression directly predicted their teaching style while interacting with their offspring, suggesting continuity in problematic interpersonal style. In addition, both childhood aggression and social withdrawal indirectly threatened optimal home environment, by contributing to a pathway of psychosocial difficulties experienced by mothers. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the study of pathways through which risk status is transmitted from one generation to the next. » (p. iii)