The Influence of Child Temperament on Cognitive Competence in a High-Risk Intergenerational Sample: Risk or Protective Factor?

The Influence of Child Temperament on Cognitive Competence in a High-Risk Intergenerational Sample: Risk or Protective Factor?

The Influence of Child Temperament on Cognitive Competence in a High-Risk Intergenerational Sample: Risk or Protective Factor?

The Influence of Child Temperament on Cognitive Competence in a High-Risk Intergenerational Sample: Risk or Protective Factor?s

| Ajouter

Référence bibliographique [6202]

Karp, Jennifer. 2000. «The Influence of Child Temperament on Cognitive Competence in a High-Risk Intergenerational Sample: Risk or Protective Factor?». Mémoire de maîtrise, Montréal, Université Concordia, Département de psychologie.

Accéder à la publication

Fiche synthèse

1. Objectifs


Intentions :
« This study examined the role of child temperament in the relationship between parental risk status and cognitive competence. » (p. iii)

Questions/Hypothèses :
- « The first hypothesis focused on the relationship between parental risk status and chid temperament. [...] In general, it was expected that high levels of parent’s childhood aggression/social withdrawal would positively predict child temperament in the second generation. » (pp. 21-22)
- « If support was provided for the first hypothesis, in that risk status predicted child temperament, then it was expected that temperament would act as a mediator in the relationship between parental risk status and children’s cognitive functionning. » (p. 22)
- « The third hypothesis focused on the specific relationship between child temparement and cognitive competence. [...] It was hypothesized that temperament would operate indirectly through social support and the home environment, in the prediction of intellectual functioning in the second generation » (p. 23-24)

2. Méthode


Échantillon/Matériau :
1774 sujets (864 garçons et 910 filles)

Instruments :
- Demographic Information Questionnaire
- « The temperamental characteristics of the children in this study were determined during videotaped mother-child interactions using the Positive Disposition Coding System (PDCS; Karp, 1999). » (33)
- « The first cohort, which included children who ranged in age from 12-42 months, was administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Second Edition, Bayley, 1993)
- the Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI)
- « The second cohort, in which children ranged from 43-72 months, was given a French translation of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SB-IV; Thordike, Hagen, & Sattler, 1986)» (34)
- the Home Observation for Mesurement of the Environment (HOME: Caldwell & Bradley, 1984)
- « A modified version of the Parenting Social Support Index (PSSI; Telleen, 1985) was utilized to assess parenting social support. » (36)
- « The Parenting Stress Inventory (PSI-III; Adibin, 1990) was employed to determine the level of stress experienced by mothers in the current study. » (37)

Type de traitement des données :
Analyse de contenu et analyse statistique

3. Résumé


In this study, « [t]hree main questions were addressed: 1) Does parental risk status predict child temperament? 2) Does child temperament act as a mediating variable between parental risk status and cognitive functioning? Importantly, does temperament operate as a risk or protective factor? and 3) What is the nature of the relationship between child temperament and cognitive functioning? These questions were explored within a subsample of high-risk mothers and their infant and preschool-age offspring from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. This longitudinal investigation, which started in 1977, identified lower SES individuals as being highly aggressive and/or withdrawn in childhood. Many of these individuals now have children of their own, which provides a unique opportunity to investigate the trajectories of risk and resilience across generations. Contrary to expectations, parental risk status was not a significant predictor of child temperament in either infants or preschoolers. In the infant subsample, child temperament operated as a risk factor for lower cognitive performance and worked directly to influence IQ, even after controlling for current psychosocial variables. In the preschool subsample, child temperament operated indirectly, through the home environment and parental social support, in predicting children’s intelligence scores. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for taking a developmental approach when studying child outcomes, and the processes by which children’s cognitive competence is placed at risk. » (p. iii)