Référence bibliographique 
Claes, Michel, Lacourse, Eric, Bouchard, Celine et Luckow, Debra. 2001. «Adolescents’ Relationships with Members of the Extended Family and Non-Related Adults in Four Countries: Canada, France, Belgium and Italy. ». International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, vol. 9, no 2-3, p. 207-225.
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« The main goal of the present study was to examine relationships that adolescents have with members of the extended family and non-related adults in four different countries: Canada, France, Belgium and Italy. » (p. 209)
« 1. It was expected that Italian adolescents would distinguish themselves from those from the other countries; they would name more significant people in their extended family and the contacts with these people would be greater. This hypothesis was based on a vast body of literature that highlights the importance of the family and of family values within Italian culture (e.g. McGoldrick, 1982; Spiegel, 1982). Sgritta (1988) has described the evolution of the Italian family over the past 30 years, and has found that despite structural changes that continue to mark the evolution of the country, there remains strong ties of solidarity within the Italian family.
2. It was expected that girls would indicate a greater number of significant people in their social environment. This hypothesis was based on the empirical works of Biyth (1982), who found this variation between the sexes, as well as Gilligan (1982) who has noted the importance of interpersonal relationships within the social world of adolescent girls.
3. It was expected that older adolescents would rate a smaller number of adults as significant. A decreasing number of important adults has been associated with increasing age, according to several authors (Biyth, 1982; Claes, 1998; Scales and Gibbons, 1996).
4. It was expected that adolescents from small cities would identify more significant people in their social network and that the contacts with these people would be greater than for adolescents living in the large cities. This hypothesis was based on Bo’s work (1989), which compared Norwegian adolescents’ social networks from two regions: a large, industrial city and a small, quiet, traditional fjord village. Bo found that the size of the social networks and the frequency of contacts were greater in the traditional community. » (pp. 209-210)
« Subjects came from four different countries: 240 subjetcs from Canada, 116 from France, 118 from Belgium, and 119 from Italy; a total of 593 subjects » (p. 210)
« Information concerning the social network was gathered using a one-hour, validated, semi-structured interview (Claes & Poirier, 1991). » (p. 211)
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« This study examines the relationships that adolescents from Canada (province of Quebec), France, Belgium, and Italy have with members of their extended family and non-related adults in their social milieu. The sample of 593 subjects was composed of boys and girls from three age groups, ranging from 11 to 18 years. In each country, subjects came from a large city (Montreal, Brussels and Rome) or from a small city of less than 30,000 inhabitants. Three types of information were gathered: the number of people identified as significant, the frequency of contacts with these people, and their principal roles and functions. In the four countries, adolescents identified a number of people whom they considered to be significant within their extended family. The roles played by these people were mainly within the emotional realm. Adolescents identified few significant non-related adults. These adults came mainly from outside of school, and acted primarily as mentors. In the European countries, particularly in Italy, contacts with members of the extended family were frequent, almost weekly. Intergenerational relationships were structured differently in Europe than in Canada, where they were closer and contacts were more frequent. » (p. 207)