Référence bibliographique 
Pierce, Tamarha, Boivin, Michel, Frenette, Éric, Forget-Dubois, Nadine, Dionne, Ginette et Tremblay, Richard E. 2010. «Maternal Self-Efficacy and Hostile-Reactive Parenting from Infancy to Toddlerhood ». Infant Behavior & Development, vol. 33, no 2, p. 149-158.
« Four interrelated objectives were pursued in the present study. Its first objective was to describe the evolution of maternal self-efficacy (SE) and hostile-reactive parenting (HRP) over the course of infancy and early toddlerhood, using a large community sample of mothers of the province of Quebec. [...] The study’s second objective was to extend previous research reporting correlations between concurrent measures of parental SE and negative parenting by testing the hypothesized reciprocal influence between these constructs over time. [...] The third objective of the present study was to add to the current body of knowledge on individual differences in maternal SE and HRP, by identifying distinct patterns in the developmental trajectories of maternal SE and HRP and estimating their prevalence in the population. Finally, the fourth objective was to examine the association (or overlap) between maternal SE and HRP trajectories, that is, the extent to which mothers following a given SE trajectory are likely to follow a specific HRP trajectory. » (p. 151)
In this study, « [m]aternal SE was expected to remain generally stable as children aged from 4.5 to 28.5 months. [Also], [i]n light of the rapid overall development (i.e., motor, language and emotional skills), the increase in assertions of autonomy which characterize children’s second and third year of life, and the fuelling effect of coercive processes, HRP was expected to increase over the same period. » (p. 151) Furthermore, it was hypothesized « [...] that maternal SE assessed at a given time point significantly predicts later HRP, controlling for prior HRP, and vice versa. » (p. 151)
Les données proviennent de l’Étude longitudinale du développement des enfants du Québec (ÉLDEQ). L’échantillon retenu est composé de 1836 mères.
Type de traitement des données :
« The present longitudinal study suggests that for most mothers, SE is generally high during infancy, with mean levels showing little change from 4.5 to 28.5 months and correlations between assessments indicating consistency in individual differences. In contrast, maternal use of HRP is found to increase considerably from infancy to toddlerhood, most markedly between 4.5 and 16.6 months. Yet correlations between assessments point to stable individual differences on HRP. […] Furthermore, analyses of individual differences in developmental patterns reveal heterogeneity in the evolution of maternal SE and HRP. Compared to most mothers, whose SE is generally high and stable, an estimated 12.6% of mothers experience lower parental SE when their child is an infant and a subsequent decline in SE as their child enters the toddler years. Likewise, an estimated 12.1% of mothers exhibit greater HRP at 4.5 months, compared to the majority of mothers, and show an alarming increase in such negative parenting over time. Although only 3.1% of mothers are estimated to simultaneously follow these SE and HRP trajectories, joint trajectory analyses highlight a significant albeit modest association between maternal SE and HRP trajectories. The overall negative correlation noted between these constructs during infancy is consistent with this association between SE and HRP trajectories. However, reciprocal effects structural equation models suggest that maternal SE and HRP become progressively independent, rather than reciprocally influence each other, as children develop from infants to toddlers. » (p. 156)