Référence bibliographique 
LeBlanc, Line, Tremblay, Richard E. et Elmaache, Hamani. 2004. «Teacher and School Characteristics Associated with Social Climate Perception: A Multilevel Analysis». Dans Le climat social des écoles secondaires, les problèmes de comportement en classe et les comportements antisociaux , sous la dir. de Line LeBlanc, p. 21-61. Montréal: Université de Montréal.
« The aim of the present study was to examine, using a multilevel approach, the teacher and school characteristics associated with the quality of social climate (discipline, academic emphasis, professional autonomy, and job satisfaction) in high schools. » (p. 22)
« Therefore, it is expected that a multilevel analysis will confirm that teacher perceptions of discipline and academic emphasis are associated with school and teacher characteristics. More precisely, teachers’ negative perception of discipline and academic emphasis in public schools should be explained by teacher characteristics such as being male, having less experience, being less educated, having non permanent job status, and school characteristics such large in size, being located in urban areas, in unprivileged areas, and having higher drop-out rates. » (pp. 25-26)
« Thus, it is expected that multilevel analysis would confirm that teacher perception of professional autonomy is associated with teacher characteristics and school characteristics in the public sector. More specifically, it is hypethesized that teacher characteristics such as being male, being less educated, having less experience, and having non permanent job status, as well as school characteristics such as being large in size, being located in urban areas, in unprivileged areas, and having higher drop-out rates are associated with less teacher ratings of professional autonomy in the public school sector. » (p. 26)
« Given these inconsistent results, we expected that a multilevel analysis would help in drawing a clearer picture of the source of job satisfaction among high school teachers. We expected that a multilevel analysis would confirm that teacher job satisfaction in the public school sector is influenced by both teacher and school characteristics. More specifically, we expected to find a relationship between low job satisfaction and teachers who are male, less educated, less experienced, and with non permanent job status, as well as with schools that are large, located in urban areas, in underprivileged areas and have higher drop-out rates. » (p. 27)
« Thus, when both public and private schools are considered, we expect that the sector variable will be the best predictor for all the dimensions of social climate. » (p. 29)
« In the present study we used four teacher level characteristics which have been shown in previous studies to be associated with perceived social climate: sex, experience, education, and job status. For school level characteristics we also used four variables previously shown to be associated with dimensions of perceived social climate: geographical location, size, parent’s socioeconomic status, and drop-out rates. » (pp. 30-31).
« Two hundred and fifty schools with a participation rate of 40% or higher (ten questionnaires or more by school) and 3238 teachers were included in the present study. » (p. 31)
« The school social climate questionnaire: The quality of a school’s social climate was mesured using a questionnaire developed by Willms for a national longitudinal study of a random sample of Canadian children (National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, 1996). The questionnaire completed by teachers covers the four dimensions that define the quality social climate in a school: discipline, academic emphasis, job satisfaction, and professional autonomy. » (p. 32)
Type de traitement des données :
« Results for public schools indicate that: 1) teachers from schools located in urban areas and shcools with higher dropout rates report more disciplinary problems among students; 2) teachers who do not hold a permanent position and teachers from large schools report less academic emphasis; 3) male teachers, more experienced teachers, and teachers from large schools perceive less professionnal autonomy; 4) more experienced teachers, teachers from rural schools and higher parental income schools report less job satisfaction. Results for public and private schools indicate that teachers in private schools have a more positive perception of all the dimensions measured compared to teachers in the public sector. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are examined, and recommendations are made for the direction of future research. » (p. 22)
Cet article, soumis pour publication dans Sociology of Education, fait partie de la thèse de doctorat de Mme Line LeBlanc, intitulée : Le climat social des écoles secondaires, les problèmes de comportement en classe et les comportements antisociaux.