Référence bibliographique 
Moss, Ellen, Cyr, Chantal et Dubois-Comtois, Karine. 2004. «Attachment at Early School Age and Developmental Risk: Examining Family Contexts and Behavior Problems of Controlling-Caregiving, Controlling-Punitive, and Behaviorally Disorganized Children ». Developmental Psychology, vol. 40, no 4, p. 519-532.
« The objective of this study was to longitudinally examine (from preschool to school age) the maternal psychosocial characteristics, family characteristics, and behavior problems of children classified as secure, avoidant, ambivalent/dependent, controlling-caregiving, controlling-punitive, and insecure-other at early school age. » (p. 521)
« We expected that all insecure attachment groups would experience a poorer caregiving environment than that experienced by secure children. We further expected that, compared with the interaction patterns of mothers and their secure children, the interaction patterns of mother-child dyads that included an insecure-organized (avoidant or ambivalent) child would show less reciprocity and balanced emotional expression and that the D subgroups would show the most disrupted interactive patterns of all the attachment groups. » (p. 521)
- « 242 French-speaking mother-child dyads » (p. 521)
- « [...] Questionnaires completed by the mother (Life Experiences Survey, Parental Stress Index, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory) and the child’s teacher (Preschool Socio-affective Profile) » (p. 522)
Type de traitement des données :
« Preschool to school-age trajectories [...] were examined. Child attachment and stressful life events (the latter retrospectively) were measured [...], and mother-child interactive quality, parenting stress, marital satisfaction, and teacher-reported behavior problems were evaluated concurrently and 2 years earlier. Results indicated that all three disorganized subgroups had poorer mother– child interactive patterns and more difficult family climates than secure or insecure – organized children. The controlling-punitive group showed significant increases in maternal reports of child-related stress between preschool and school age. The controlling– caregiving group showed greater likelihood of loss of a close family member, and mothers of the insecure– other group reported lower marital satisfaction and greater likelihood of their own or a spouse’s hospitalization. Controlling–punitive children had higher externalizing scores, and controlling– caregiving children higher internalizing scores, than secure children. » (p. 519)