Bifurcation by Social Status in the Onset of Fatherhood

Bifurcation by Social Status in the Onset of Fatherhood

Bifurcation by Social Status in the Onset of Fatherhood

Bifurcation by Social Status in the Onset of Fatherhoods

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Référence bibliographique [4053]

Ravanera, Zenaida R. et Rajulton, Fernando. 2004. Bifurcation by Social Status in the Onset of Fatherhood. London (Ontario): University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Center.

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Fiche synthèse

1. Objectifs

Intentions :
« [Concerns have been expressed] that there may be a bifurcation of parents and children into two groups: children brought up by two parents who are able to devote time and money to parenting, and children raised by mothers, with fathers absent, who have inadequate resources. […]
Although the bifurcation theory involves a number of hypotheses relating to various demographic processes such as fertility, divorce, and child outcome, in this study, we focus on the fertility-related hypothesis, in particular we examine the bifurcation by social status in the start of fatherhood. » (p. 2)

2. Méthode

Échantillon/Matériau :
« The study uses the 2001 General Social Survey on Family History, a country-wide survey conducted by Statistics Canada with a representative sample of those aged 15 and older […]. The survey has 24310 respondents; however, we limit our study to men born from 1922 to 1980, or 9500 respondents. » (p. 4)

Type de traitement des données :
Analyse statistique

3. Résumé

« We first discuss the factors that influence the timing of the start of fatherhood through the birth of first child and then describe the data and methodologies used in this study. The analysis presented in the subsequent sections consists of three parts. The first analyzes the gross differentials by social status and by cohort in the onset of fatherhood. The second examines the factors that influence the timing by including parental and individual characteristics in addition to social status, family values, and selected life course events. The third part presents the trajectories to fatherhood passing though early life course transitions such as graduation from post-secondary education, start of regular work, and marriage. The final section highlights the major findings and briefly discusses directions for further research. » (p. 3)
« To the question ’is there a bifurcation in timing of and trajectories to fatherhood by social status’, the answer is definitely ’yes’. The results from the single decrement life tables show that men who belong to high social status became fathers at older ages than those from lower classes. The hazard models show that this persists even after controlling for background variables. Moreover, the effect of education is as expected—the higher the level, the later the start of parenthood. In contrast, personal income has the opposite effect; that is, the higher the income level, the earlier the onset of fatherhood. Finally the life course analysis of trajectories shows that those with high social status are more likely to go through the normatively preferred ’graduation -> work -> marriage -> fatherhood’ trajectory, with later age at start of parenting. Those belonging to low social class tend to follow the ’work -> marriage -> fatherhood’ trajectory associated with earlier entry into fatherhood. The difference in age is mainly accounted for by the time spent for higher education. » (p. 13)
« However, while placing the bifurcation of fertility in perspective, our study does indicate the groups for whom concern is warranted. For instance, the probability of going through the ’work -> fatherhood’ trajectory, which bypasses both graduation from post-secondary education and marriage, is highest among men in the low social status. […] The concern is based on previous findings that cohabiting unions are more fragile than marriage. » (p. 14)