Self-Perceptions, Temperament, Socioemotional Adjustment and the Perceptions of Parental Support of Chronically Underachieving Children

Self-Perceptions, Temperament, Socioemotional Adjustment and the Perceptions of Parental Support of Chronically Underachieving Children

Self-Perceptions, Temperament, Socioemotional Adjustment and the Perceptions of Parental Support of Chronically Underachieving Children

Self-Perceptions, Temperament, Socioemotional Adjustment and the Perceptions of Parental Support of Chronically Underachieving Childrens

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Référence bibliographique [3900]

Bouffard, Thérèse, Roy, Mathieu et Vezeau, Carole. 2005. «Self-Perceptions, Temperament, Socioemotional Adjustment and the Perceptions of Parental Support of Chronically Underachieving Children ». International Journal of Educational Research, vol. 43, no 4-5, p. 215-235.

Fiche synthèse

1. Objectifs


Intentions :
« This paper reports on a study comparing self-perceptions, perceived parental support, temperament and socioemotional adjustment of elementary school children who, for three consecutive years, presented a steady level of achievement below, above or in the range of that predicted by their mental ability. The study’s second goal was to examine whether children’s perceptions of parental support act as a factor that can promote positive selfperceptions and socioemotional adjustment. » (p. 217)

2. Méthode


Échantillon/Matériau :
« The initial sample comprised 565 third graders (mean age = 8.6 years old, SD = 5.8) and fourth graders (mean age = 9.7 years old, SD = 5.9) who were just starting to participate in a larger longitudinal study that examined the development of children’s accuracy of self-perceptions. Children were recruited from 10 public schools in the Montreal area and all were French speaking. 339 children met the criterion of similar labeling for three successive years, but due to missing questionnaires from 30 families, 309 children were included in the current study. This sample comprises 135 boys and 174 girls and one each of their parents (78 fathers and 232 mothers) as well as their teachers (13 males and 42 females). The underachievement group includes 55 children (31 boys and 24 girls, mean age = 11.42 years old, SD = 5.8 months), the standard achievement group includes 217 children (87 boys and 130 girls, mean age = 11.10 years old, SD = 5.6 months) whereas the overachievement group includes 37 children (17 boys and 20 girls, mean age = 11.42 years old, SD = 5.8 months). Among children whose parents (n = 30) did not return the questionnaire, four were in the underachievement group, three in the overachievement group and 23 were in the standard achievement group. » (p. 219)

Instruments :
- « A French version of the Mental Ability Test (Otis & Lennon, 1971) […] » (p. 219)
- « All questionnaires with children used a structured-alternative question format adapted
from the one developed by Harter and Pike (1984). » (p. 219)
- Achenbach (1991) (p. 220)
- « [A] French version (Vitaro, Brendgen, & Tremblay, 2002) of the Dimensions of Temperament survey (Lerner, Palermo, Spiro, & Nesselroade, 1982). » (p. 220)

Types de traitement des données :
Analyse statistique

3. Résumé


« [C]hronic underachievement is not a trivial experience. As highlighted by McCall et al. (2000) and by findings of the present study, the several correlates of enduring underachievement seem to suggest that it is more than mere poor school performance. It is a syndrome challenging the whole psychological well-being of those affected. The fact that parents seem unaware or insensitive to the problem is troublesome. However, we cannot disregard the possible explanation that parents’ apparent insensitivity to their children’s maladjustment is the result of that maladjustment being contextually linked to the school setting. In this regard, it becomes interesting that teachers appear to notice socioemotional maladjustment of underachievers. Teachers are sensitive to the fact that children experience emotional problems, but this does not imply that they linked the children’s problems to underachievement. We also do not know whether teachers are aware that those children have abilities that could permit them to better achieve. The correlational nature of this study does not allow us to draw a causal relation between underachievement and socioemotional maladjustment. Thus, the findings obtained can hardly be used to define intervention programs. However, negative perfectionism is pervasive with regard to self-perceptions, and it is well known that negative self-perceptions undermine children’s engagement in active learning. Hence, to promote self-regulated learning and increased achievement, teachers must assist children in developing positive perceptions of competence; helping children to set realistic and attainable standards of performance might be an appropriate channel to reach this goal. » (p. 230)