Référence bibliographique 
Fotso, Jean-Christophe et Kuate-Defo, Barthelemy. 2005. «Socioeconomic Inequalities in Early Childhood Malnutrition and Morbidity: Modification of the Household-Level Effects by the Community SES ». Health & Place, vol. 11, no 3, p. 205-225.
« [T]his study is designed in an attempt to examine variations among communities in childhood malnutrition and morbidity, and to investigate how the SES [socioeconomic statuses] of communities and that of households affect child health regardless of their individual characteristics, and how they interact in this process (Robert, 1999; Diez-Roux, 2001, 1998; Duncan et al., 1998, 1996). » (p. 206)
« More specifically, the motivation is to test the following hypotheses: (i) Childhood malnutrition and diarrhea morbidity cluster among communities, according to patterns consistent with the presence of contextual effects; (ii) Malnutrition and diarrhea morbidity occur more frequently among children from households and communities with lower SES; (iii) The household socioeconomic influences on child health are modified by the SES of communities. » (p. 206)
« [W]e use data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of five African countries which have carried out more than one DHS in the 90s: Burkina Faso (1992/93, 1998/99); Cameroon (1991, 1998); Egypt (1992, 2000); Kenya (1993, 1998) and Zimbabwe (1994, 1999). » (p. 208)
Type de traitement des données :
« A number of key findings emerge from this study: First, variations in child health among communities are clearly accounted for by contextual factors over and above likely compositional effects, even though differences between communities in the risks of childhood malnutrition and morbidity are found to originate mainly from differences in familial characteristics. [...] Second, there is a strong patterning in child nutritional status along SES lines, with household wealth status emerging to be the most powerful predictor as its effects outweigh in virtually all countries and time periods the influences of the two other socioeconomic indexes, and community SES having in some instances a contribution independent of the effect of the SES of households. [...] Third, community SES is estimated to significantly modify the association between household SES and child health, according to patterns mainly consistent with initiating/enlarging model. » (p. 223)