Référence bibliographique 
Galera, Cédric, Fombonne, Eric, Chastang, Jean-François et Bouvard, Manuel. 2005. «Childhood Hyperactivity-Inattention Symptoms and Smoking in Adolescence ». Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 78, no 1, p. 101-108.
« In this longitudinal community study, we examined in both genders the link between childhood hyperactivity-inattention symptoms (HI-s) and later adolescent smoking controlling for psychiatric comorbidity, temperament and environmental risk factors. » (p. 102)
« We hypothesized that ADHD [attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder) symptoms in childhood would be an independent risk factor for subsequent smoking and that other factors, particularly CD symptoms, would independently also contribute to the prediction of adolescent smoking. » (p. 102)
- Version française du Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach, 1991);
- « Parental data were obtained through medical services of EDF-GDF and INSERM research unit managing the GAZEL cohort […] » (p. 103);
- Youth questionnaire;
- Parental questionnaire.
Types de traitement des données :
« Hyperactivity-inattention symptoms in childhood did not predict lifetime smoking in bivariate relationships or after controlling for other variables. Furthermore, this applied to both males and females. Tobacco experimentation can be regarded as a normative experience rather than a deviant behavior. Thus, any association between hyperactivity-inattention and smoking is likely to have been diluted in analyses taking into account the broad definition of smoking, and those results were correspondingly biased toward the null hypothesis. A different picture emerged when a more stringent definition of smoking was employed. Consistent with previous research and with our original hypotheses, childhood hyperactivity-inattention symptomatology predicted daily smoking in bivariate relationships. Interestingly enough, the patterns of results differed according to gender when multivariate modelling of the data was performed. Contrary to our expectation, hyperactivity-inattention symptoms did not contribute to risk of daily smoking in males, after controlling for the effects of CD symptoms, activity and parental smoking. Those results support other published findings which indicate that ADHD does not predict independently subsequent nicotine dependence and that other factors account for the link between ADHD and smoking (Boyle et al., 1992; Lynskey and Fergusson, 1995). By contrast, childhood hyperactivity-inattention symptoms in females significantly increased the risk for daily smoking 8 years later. This gender difference is consistent with another population-based study conducted by Disney et al. (1999). This result is important for at least two reasons: first, the rates of smoking among females have consistently increased during the last decade (Baudier et al., 2000); second, ADHD amongst females leads to fewer externalising problems and consequently tends to be under diagnosed. » (p. 106)