Gatti, Uberto et Tremblay, Richard E. 2005. «Social Capital and Physical Violence». Dans Developmental Origins of Aggression , sous la dir. de Richard E. Tremblay, Hartup, W. W. et Archer, J., p. 398-419. New York (États-Unis): Guilford Press.
Intentions : « The aim of this chapter is to review the litterature on the effects of social environments on the development of physical aggression. » (p. 398)
Questions/Hypothèses : We « [...] hypothesis that, in general, social capital at the microsocial level acts primarily in the early years of life, and at the macrosocial level, its effects are chiefly felt during adulthood. » (p. 399)
Type de traitement des données : Analyse de contenu
This chapter is about social capital defined « [...] as interpersonal relationship that facilitate action [...]. Social capital therefore represents an aspect of social reality that individuals (or groups) utilize as a resource in order to further their own interests and to achieve goals that would otherwise be beyond their reach [...]. » (pp. 398-399) « The notion that social capital is linked to the development of children has been argued especially by Coleman (1990), who draws a distinction between social capital within the family and outside the family. [...] By setting the developmental phases against the greater or lesser breadth of the context in which the effect is felt, we created a classification for our analysis of the effects of social capital. » (p. 399) « From the developmental standpoint, several empirical studies have demonstrated that both familial and extrafamilial social capital have an effect, even in the long term, on children’s adjustment, on academic results and socioeconomic success [...], and on health and well-being [...]. We have seen that the development of children and young people can be influenced by the quality of relationships within the family, at school, and among peers, and by the characteristics of the communities and regional environments in which he lives. [...] In addition to its multidimensional character, the developmental aspect of social capital should also be considered, by examining how the loss or acquisition of a given form of social capital during the course of the individual’s life might influence engagement in aggressive behavior. [...] Family social capital and the relationship resources offered by the child welfare system chiefly act during early childhood to middle childhood, when learning to regulate physical aggression appears to be at its peak. » (p. 417)