Référence bibliographique 
Haan, Michael. 2005. «The Decline of the Immigrant Home-Ownership Advantage: Life-Cycle, Declining Fortunes and Changing Housing Careers in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver, 1981-2001 ». Urban Studies, vol. 42, no 12, p. 2191-2212.
« The purpose of this paper is to identify the socioeconomic and demographic sources of the immigrant homeownership decline. » (pp. 2191-2192)
« [T]he following five hypotheses emerge
(1) Changes in immigrant and Canadian-born CMA choice, most notably an immigrant movement away from Montreal (especially recent immigrants), will dampen an even greater immigrant decline.
(2) The declining economic resources (income, number of earners, full-time status and unemployment prevalence) of recent immigrants hinder their ability to buy a home.
(3) Within the framework of the traditional housing career, a greater proportion of immigrant families should seek homeownership, since more of them are likely to be married with children than the Canadian-born. This is expected to prevent an even greater decline.
(4) The increasing share of immigrants that are recent arrivals in 2001 reduces immigrant home-ownership rates.
(5) The increase in non-White immigration will push immigrant rates downwards. » (p. 2200)
« [T]his study uses a pooled sample dataset with observations from the beginning (1981) and end (2001) of the immigrant home-ownership advantage decline. The proportion of Canadian-born [Montréal, Toronto, Vancouver] households is reduced so that it equals the immigrant population and a 20 per cent random sample is taken to ease the computational burden. » (p. 2200)
Type de traitement des données :
« In the past, working-age immigrant families in Canada’s large urban centres had higher home-ownership rates than the Canadian-born. Over the past 20 years, however, this advantage has reversed, due jointly to a drop in immigrant rates and a rise in the popularity of home-ownership among the Canadian-born. This paper assesses the efficacy of a fairly standard microeconomic consumer choice model, which includes indicators for age, income, education, family type and immigrant characteristics, plus several interactions with time, to explain these changes. It is found that the standard model almost completely explains the immigrant homeownership advantage in 1981, as well as the rise in home-ownership rates over time among the Canadian-born. Even after accounting for the well-known decline in immigrant economic fortunes, however, it is shown that only about half of the 1981-2001 immigrant change in homeownership rates is explained by the standard model. » (p. 2191)