« Thus, a primary goal was to explore the cooccurrence of CP [conduct problems] and HAP [hyperactivity/attention problems] beginning at age two. We were also interested in exploring risk factors associated with chronic CP versus HAP-only, and comparing these pathways to trajectories with consistently low levels of CP and HAP. » (p. 931)
« Based on previous studies, including an earlier report of the present cohort, we expected persistent trajectories of CP to be characterized by a broad range of child, family, and socioeconomic risk factors (Fergusson, Horwood, & Lynskey, 1993; Nagin & Tremblay, 2001a; Shaw et al., 2003), including maternal depressive symptoms, rejecting parenting, child fearlessness, and sociodemographic risk. Based on a model of CP postulated by Patterson, DeGarmo, and Knutson (2000), in which HAP place young children at risk for later CP when accompanied by disruption in parental discipline strategies, we expected chronic trajectories of HAP-only symptoms would be differentiated more by child factors in combination with sociodemographic risk, rather than such proximal caregiving factors as rejecting parenting and maternal depression. That is, we would expect a pattern of early HAP symptoms to be accompanied by high CP in the context of high proximal family risk. Thus, we expected chronic CP/HAP children to show higher levels of rejecting parenting and maternal depression than chronic HAP-only children, but show similar levels of child (e.g., negative emotionality) and sociodemographic (e.g., low maternal educational attainment) risk.
Accordingly, the first goal of this paper was to the use a semiparametric mixture model (Nagin & Tremblay, 1999) to trace individual trajectories of overt CP and HAP symptomatology from ages 2 to 10 using data on 284 boys from ethnically diverse, low-income urban families. Based on recent research that has documented a similar pattern of decreasing growth of HAP and CP between the school-age period and adolescence (Nagin & Tremblay, 1999), we hypothesized that similar developmental trajectories would be identified from ages 2 to 10, including groups that would follow a persistently high or persistently low course, and those that would demonstrate a pattern of desistence.
A second goal was to examine the rate of comorbidity of persistent overt CP and persistent HAP trajectories, with the expectation that a majority of children with overt CP would also have a persistent trajectory of HAP, but that a lower percentage of persistent HAP children would show a chronic pathway of overt CP.
Our third goal was to examine child, family, and sociodemographic risk factors that would differentiate developmental trajectories of persistent CP, persistent HAP and a persistent course of low rates of CP and HAP symptoms. Based on prior research (Aguilar, Sroufe, Egeland, & Carlson, 2000; Campbell et al., 2000; Greenberg et al., 1999), it was hypothesized that persistent trajectories of CP and persistent trajectories of HAP would both be characterized by a greater number of child and socioeconomic risk factors than those with persistent trajectories of low CP and HAP symptoms, but that persistent trajectories of CP, many of whom were expected to share a history of HAP symptoms, would demonstrate high levels of rejecting parenting and maternal depression (Bates et al., 1998; Shaw, Bell, & Gilliom, 2000).
Finally, as our trajectory groups were defined solely by maternal report, a fourth goal was to examine whether teacher report would discriminate groups of children characterized by persistently high versus persistently low trajectories of CP, HAP, and/or co-occurring CP/HAP as reported on by mothers. » (p. 932)
« Participants included a community sample of low-income boys and their families recruited from the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Nutritional Supplement Programs in the Pittsburgh metropolitan area (Shaw, Winslow, & Flanagan, 1999). WIC provides nutritional food supplements for income-eligible participants from pregnancy until children are 5 years old. Three hundred and ten participants were recruited from 932 Daniel S. Shaw, Eric Lacourse, and Daniel S. Nagin WIC sites throughout the Pittsburgh metropolitan area over the course of 2 years. The sample was limited to boys because of their higher risk for serious antisocial behavior, which was the study’s primary focus. Participants were recruited when target children were between 6 and 17 months old. » (p. 933)
- Child fearlessness: the Gorilla Task on two molecular and two global scales (Shaw et al., 2003).
- Child negative emotionality: grille d’observation des comportements de l’enfant en interaction
- Maternal depressive symptoms: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Becket al., 1961);
- Rejecting parenting: the Early Parenting Coding System (EPCS; Winslow & Shaw, 1995) and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME; Caldwell & Bradley, 1984).
- Child conduct problems: Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991, 1992) and the Teacher Report Form (TRF; Achenbach, 1991)
Type de traitement des données :
« Background: Conduct problems (CP) and hyperactivity/attention problems (HAP) are thought to covary with regularity, yet few studies have examined their co-occurrence or risk factors that discriminate their trajectories beginning in early childhood. Method: The present study sought to advance our understanding of this issue by examining separate trajectories of overt CP and HAP symptomatology among 284 boys from urban, low-income families followed from ages 1.5 to 10. We also investigated the cooccurrence of persistent CP and HAP and explored risk factors that discriminate CP and HAP trajectories. Results: Four similar trajectory groups were identified for both CP and HAP symptoms. Chronic CP was differentiated from persistent low CP by risk factors in child, parenting, and family domains, while chronic trajectories of HAP were typified by elevated maternal depressive symptoms compared to children with persistent low HAP. Conclusions: The findings extend previous research with older children of HAP and/or CP, highlighting the effects of proximal family and child risk factors that are identifiable in the first two years of children’s lives and associated with trajectories of disruptive behavior. » (p. 931)