Référence bibliographique 
Vitaro, Frank, Brendgen, Mara, Larose, Simon et Tremblay, Richard E. 2005. «Kindergarten Disruptive Behaviors, Protective Factors, and Educational Achievement by Early Adulthood ». Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 97, no 4, p. 617-629.
« The present study was designed to address the current lack of knowledge about the possible additive and interactive effects of child personal characteristics, parent child-rearing attitudes, and teacher management style on later high school noncompletion. Specifically, the goals of this study were (a) to examine the additive and interactive contribution of the cognitive and social aspects of disruptive behaviors assessed during kindergarten to the prediction of high school noncompletion by early adulthood (i.e., by age 20 years) and (b) to examine the possible protective role of personal (i.e., anxiety, prosociality), parental (i.e., child-rearing attitudes), and teacher-related characteristics (i.e., teacher management style) from both a compensatory and an interactive perspective. » (p. 619)
« The following set of hypotheses was derived from the preceding overview of the relevant literature: (a) Both aspects of disruptiveness (i.e., cognitive and social) should make a unique, additive contribution in predicting high school noncompletion, and (b) both aspects should interact in predicting high school noncompletion such that children who are both cognitively and socially disruptive, as indexed respectively by teacher-rated inattention-hyperactivity and aggressiveness– opposition, will be most at risk. In addition, (c) other behavioral aspects, such as high levels of anxiety and prosociality, should mitigate the link between either or both aspects of disruptiveness and high school noncompletion (i.e., which indicates protection through a moderating effect) in addition to exerting negative main effects on the risk of high school noncompletion (i.e., which indicates protection by compensation). Similarly, (d) positive child-rearing attitudes, such as consistent nonpunitive discipline, stimulation, and positive feelings toward the child, should exert compensating or moderating effects with respect to the links between either or both dimensions of disruptiveness and high school noncompletion. Finally, (e) an autonomy oriented management style of the kindergarten teacher should protect disruptive children (again either in a compensatory or a moderating mode) from leaving school without a high school diploma. » (pp. 619-620)
« Participants of the present study included 4,340 children (2,238 boys; 2,102 girls) for whom ratings were available from teachers and parents when they were in kindergarten (mean age = 5.11 years, SD = 0.30). » (p. 620)
- « Sociofamilial adversity index. Mothers reported family structure (i.e., two-parent, single, blended), both parents’, or mother’s, age at the birth of first child, education levels of both parents or of the parent with whom the child was living, and occupations of both parents or the parent with whom the child was living. » (p. 620)
- « Parental child-rearing attitudes. Kindergarten children’s mothers (fathers for less than 10% of the sample) completed a French version of a parent child-rearing attitude questionnaire (Falender & Mehrabian, 1980). » (p. 620)
- « Teacher management style. To assess teachers’ styles of managing behavioral problems in the classroom, we used the Orientation Toward Control Versus Autonomy Scale (OCVAS; Deci, Schwartz, Sheinman, & Ryan, 1981). » (p. 621)
Les participants ont été interrogés à la maternelle (1986-1987), puis des données ont été obtenues sur leur statut scolaire (diplomation) par le Ministère de l’Éducation du Québec en 1999-2000, soit lors de leur vingtième année.
Type de traitement des données :
« This study examined whether 2 aspects of disruptive behaviors (i.e., hyperactivity–inattention and aggressiveness– opposition) observed in kindergarten predict noncompletion of high school by early adulthood. Also investigated was whether other personal characteristics such as anxiety or prosociality as well as parent child-rearing attitudes and teacher management style exert a compensatory or protective role with respect to these predictive links. A community sample of 4,330 children participated in this study. Results showed that hyperactivity–inattention made a stronger contribution to predicting noncompletion of high school than did aggressiveness– opposition. However, prosociality and 2 parental child-rearing aspects (i.e., pleasure and discipline) played a compensatory role in this process. Theoretical and preventive implications of these results are stressed in the discussion. » (p. 617)