Référence bibliographique 
Fortin, Laurier, Marcotte, Diane, Potvin, Pierre, Royer, Égide et Joly, Jacques. 2006. «Typology of Students at Risk of Dropping Out of School: Description by Personal, Family and School Factors ». European Journal of Psychology of Education, vol. 21, no 4, p. 363-383.
« The purpose of this study was to identify the different subgroups of students at risk of dropping out of school. » (p. 363)
« The convenience sample consisted of 810 Grade 7 students from three cohorts attending four high schools in three Quebec regions: Quebec City (184 students), Trois-Rivières (389 students) and Sherbrooke (237 students). The French-Canadian participants were 12-13 years old; 54% were boys and 64% were girls. » (p. 367)
- Decision (Quirouette, 1988);
- Dossiers scolaires;
- Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (Beck, 1978);
- Self-Reported Delinquency Questionnaire (LeBlanc, 1994);
- Parental style (Steinberg, Lamborn, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992);
- Family Environment Scale (Moos & Moos, 1981);
- Parental participation in school follow-up (Epstein, Connors, & Salinas, 1993);
- Classroom Environment Scale (Moss & Trickett, 1987);
- Teacher’s attitudes towards the student scale (Potvin & Rousseau, 1991).
Types de traitement des données :
« The typology was developed based on the three main contexts associated with school dropout risk, namely, the personal, family and school contexts. On the basis of these factors, the clustering results enabled us to categorize at-risk students into four subgroups: (1) the Anti-Social Covert behaviour type, (2) the Uninterested in school type, (3) the School and Social Adjustment Difficulties type, and (4) the Depressive type. Moreover, considering all the contexts involved in school dropout, the clustering technique confirms the importance of behaviour problems and learning difficulties, while emphasizing the significance of both depression and the family and classroom environments in the development of dropout risk. Students at risk of dropping out of school report many family organisational problems and they obtain little emotional support from their parents. They also perceive little order or organisation in the classroom. » (p. 363)