Référence bibliographique 
Claes, Michel, Perchec, Cyrille, Miranda, Dave, Benoît, Amélie, Bariaud, Françoise, Lanz, Margherita, Marta, Elena et Éric, Lacourse. 2011. «Adolescents’ Perceptions of Parental Practices: A Cross-National Comparison of Canada, France, and Italy ». Journal of Adolescence, vol. 34, no 2, p. 225-238.
« This study compares the cross-cultural similarities and specificities of relationships between adolescents and their parents in three countries: Canada (province of Québec), France, and Italy. It aims to examine the differences and similarities between these countries both in regard to adolescents’ perception of the quality of their relationships with their parents and their perception of the behavioural control their parents practice. This study also seeks to compare developmental trends across the three countries by using a cross-sectional design to examine the potential evolution of parental control as a function of adolescents’ age. » (p. 227)
L’échantillon de cette étude comprend 1256 adolescents québécois, français et italiens.
Type de traitement des données :
« The first hypothesis guiding this study postulated that Canadian parents from Québec would exert less behavioural control by way of family rules and need for authorization, that they would be more tolerant of friend-related activities, and that they would be less punitive or coercive in their disciplinary actions. This hypothesis was confirmed. In comparison to European adolescents, Canadian adolescents reported less behavioural control, more permissive disciplinary actions, and more tolerance of friend-related activities from both their mothers and fathers. The second hypothesis regarded emotional bonding and predicted that Italian parents would be rated with higher levels of emotional bonding and communication than Canadian parents from Québec and French parents. This hypothesis was not confirmed. There are no cross-national differences in emotional bonding for mothers. In each country, mothers are perceived as affectionate, warm, and communicative. The same perception exists for Canadian and Italian fathers who are also perceived as displaying high levels of emotional bonding and communication. [….] This study’s third hypothesis was developmental and proposed that adolescents’ age would differentiate parent-adolescent relationships beyond their national context or gender. This hypothesis was clearly confirmed. In the three countries, adolescents perceive a gradual decrease in behavioural control between the ages of 11 and 19: fathers and mothers reduce their requirements and their disciplinary constraints, while increasing their tolerance of friend-related activities. » (p. 234-235)