Référence bibliographique 
Rapoport, Benoît et Le Bourdais, Céline. 2006. «Parental Time, Work Schedules, and Changing Gender Roles». Dans Canada’s Changing Families: Implications for Individuals and Society , sous la dir. de Kevin McQuillan et Ravanera, Zenaida R., p. 76-104. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
« To what extent have the complementary roles of men and women in providing for their family been accompanied by an increasing sharing of domestic activities? And, more specifically, how have changes in the family and the economy influenced the way in which family members interrelate with one another and, in particular, how do they affect the time that parents spend with their children? These questions constitue the main thread of this chapter. » (p. 78)
« In the following analysis we use the 1992 and 1998 Canadian General Social Surveys […], which collected information on Canadians’ time allocation. Besides answering several sociodemographic questions, 10 749 respondents aged 15 years and older (coming from 10 749 separate households) in 1998, and 8,996 respondents in 1992, representative of the non-institutionalized population in Canada, were asked to report on how they used their time during a given 24-hour period. » (p. 78)
Type de traitement des données :
« This chapter examined to what extent changes in family and work patterns have influenced the time that parents spend with their children. Like other studies, our analysis shows that mothers, on average, spend more time than fathers (approximately two hours more per day) in the presence of their children. Mothers living in two-parent families spend a large share of their parental time pursuing activities alone with their children, while fathers tend to devote a greater fraction of their time conducting activities jointly with their partner. This result partly explains the paradox observed in previous studies, namely, that the increased participation of fathers in childcare does not significantly reduce the amount of time that women spend with their children. It does, however, yield an augmentation of the amount of family time, that is, time that both parents spend doing common activities in the presence of their children, and that in itself probably represents a positive outcome, even though it did not necessarily help to alleviate the double burden of mothers. […]
Our analysis showed that parental time differs between men and women, across family types, and with work schedules. On average, mothers spend a pproximately the same amount of time with their children than those living in two-parent families. […] No matter the type of family, mothers tend to devote a greater amount of time to domestic work and direct childcare, and fathers to leisure activities.
Work patterns have a strong impact on the quantity and type of activities that parents pursue in the presence of their children, but again, this impact varies according to the sex of parents and the family structure in which they live. Parental time appears to be negatively linked to the amount of time worked, that is, it decreases as the number of hours worked increases. » (pp. 95-96)