Référence bibliographique 
Alexander, Stephanie. 2007. «The Role of Gender and Social Context for Men’s and Women’s Smoking Behaviour». Mémoire de maîtrise, Montréal, Université de Montréal, Département de médecine sociale et préventive.
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«Cette étude a pour but d’examiner trois éléments du contexte social en considérant comment ces éléments sont influencés par le genre et façonnent le tabagisme chez les hommes et les femmes.» (p. iv)
«First, we expect to find, in both men’s and women’s narratives, that feminine gender identity is more dissonant with smoking behaviour than is masculine gender identity. As a corollary, we propose that this may at once provide encouragement for women wishing to quit smoking, but may also have a negative and stigmatising effect on other women smokers. Second, we expect to find that concerns over weight gain and body image are predominantly expressed by women smokers, and that this may function as a deterrent to smoking cessation. Last, we expect to find that masculine gender identity is more often associated with expressions of control over smoking behaviour, and with greater agency in the ability to quit smoking, than is a feminine gender identity.» (p. 31)
L’échantillon est composé de 23 fumeuses et fumeurs adultes résidant à Montréal et Toronto.
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«Considerable population reductions in smoking prevalence have been witnessed in developed countries. [...] The way the social context is gendered and shapes men’s and women’s smoking behaviour is critical in understanding gender disparities in smoking. [...]Our results show that first, women express considerable dissonance between gender identities and smoking behaviour, whereas men’s gender identities seem to reinforce smoking behaviour. Second, smoking was relevant for a woman’s sense of physical attraction [...]. Last, women suggest wanting, but not having control over smoking behaviour and cessation, while men express having control over smoking cessation, but with little urgency to do so. As elements of the social context are gendered and strongly shape men’s and women’s smoking behaviours, tobacco control initiatives ought to increasingly address the social construct of gender, as well as some of the inequalities inherent in gender norms, in order to further reduce the gender disparities in smoking.» (p. iii) Some parts of this research highlight how the role of the smokers in their family can influence their smoking behaviour.