Référence bibliographique 
Orri, Massimiliano, Chadi, Nicholas, Ahun, Marilyn N., Séguin, Jean R., Tremblay, Richard E. , Boivin, Michel, Turecki, Gustavo, Geoffroy, Marie-Claude et Côté, Sylvana M. 2021. «Suicidal Ideation and Attempt in Adolescents Exposed to Maternal Smoking Across Pregnancy and Childhood: A 20-Year Prospective Cohort Study ». Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 286, p. 10-18.
«The aim of this study was to investigate the association of patterns of exposure to prenatal and postnatal maternal smoking with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in adolescence.» (p. 11)
«This study is based on the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD), a representative birth cohort from Québec, Canada (Orri et al., 2020). […] The present study is based on 1623 participants (77% of the initial sample; 778 [47.9%] males and 845 [52.1%] females; Table 1) […].» (p. 11) To study the maternal smoking patterns, the mothers reported the number of cigarettes they smoked each day «when the participants were 5 months, 1½, 2 ½, 3½, 5, 7, 10, and 12 years of age […].» (p. 11)
Type de traitement des données :
The authors «identified a group of children exposed to a pattern of persistent maternal smoking from before pregnancy to the entire childhood period. These children were more than twice as likely as non-exposed children to attempt suicide in adolescence. [The] risk of suicide attempt for children of mothers with persistent smoking remained higher than those of non-exposed children after accounting for a range of background maternal and family characteristics which reflect both environmental adversities and (in part) genetic vulnerabilities.» (p. 13) It was «also found that children exposed to maternal smoking only during the postnatal period (i.e., increasing pattern) were more likely than never exposed children to attempt suicide in adolescence, but this was entirely attributable to background family, maternal, and paternal characteristics.» (p. 13) «Multiple mechanisms may account for the association between persistent maternal smoking exposure and offspring suicide attempt. First, at the biological level, exposure to maternal smoking has negative effects on development. […] Second, psychosocial mechanisms may also be at play. Specifically, children observing parents smoking may also be prone to engage in smoking behaviors because of modeling effects […].» (p. 15) «Finally, an interesting finding from this study is that persistent maternal smoking was associated with suicide attempt, but not with suicidal ideation.» (p. 16)