Référence bibliographique 
Gagné, Marie-Hélène, Piché, Geneviève, Clément, Marie-Ève et Villatte, Aude. 2021. «Families in Confinement: A Pre–Post COVID-19 Study ». Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, vol. 10, no 4, p. 260-270.
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«[T]he aim of this study is to document changes that have occurred 1 year apart [during the COVID-19 pandemic] in parenting, child behavior, and family violence against children.» (p. 261)
«The first hypothesis postulates a deterioration in parenting (increased psychological distress, reduced parental self-efficacy, increased parental stress, increased dysfunctional disciplinary practices, and reduced positive parenting practices). The second hypothesis postulates a deterioration in child behavior (increased emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity/inattention, and decreased prosocial behavior). The third hypothesis postulates an increase in the physical and psychological violence suffered by the child from an adult in the household.» (p. 261)
«The sample includes 127 parents from different families, including 19.8% of fathers. In each family, a target child was randomly selected if needed. The target children are aged between 5 and 17, with an average age of 10 […]. In the vast majority of cases, they live with the responding parent full time (79.5%) or between 4 and 6 days per week (15.7%). The participants come from Quebec City (60.6%) and Montreal (39.4%).» (p. 261)
Type de traitement des données :
«Findings partially confirmed the first hypothesis: parents displayed significantly more psychological distress and felt less effective as parents during the pandemic. However, the effect sizes remain modest. Results were insignificant for parental stress and parenting practices. Mixed support was also found for the second hypothesis on child behavior: as expected, findings underline a reduction in child prosocial behavior, but an unexpected decrease in emotional symptoms. Other behavioral indicators (conduct problems, hyperactivity, and inattention) remained stable, as did indicators of family violence toward the child, thus failing to support the third hypothesis.» (p. 264-265) In addition, «[f]indings show that while children’s disruptive behaviors seem to remain stable, children are said by parents to exhibit fewer behaviors that reflect empathy, cooperation, sharing, and mutual support. It is possible that due to the reduced volume of social interactions in a confinement setting, children and adolescents have fewer opportunities to exhibit such behavior, and parents have fewer opportunities to spot them.» (p. 265)