Référence bibliographique 
Carbonneau, René, Vitaro, Frank, Brendgen, Mara, Boivin, Michel et Tremblay, Richard E. 2022. «Early Risk Factors Associated with Preschool Developmental Patterns of Single and Co-Occurrent Disruptive Behaviors in a Population Sample ». Developmental Psychology, vol. 58, no 3, p. 438-452.
«The primary aim of this study was to investigate the early risk factors associated with developmental patterns of single-DB [disruptive behaviors] and co-occurrent DBs during preschool years.» (p. 440)
«Participants came from a birth cohort of 2,226 infants (92% White of European ancestry, 51.2% boys) representative of the children born (single births) in the province of Quebec, Canada, in 1997–1998. They were part of an ongoing longitudinal study [Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development] (Orri et al., 2020).» (p. 440-441)
Type de traitement des données :
Results show that «a core of risk factors common to different high-DB trajectory classes was observed. However, none of the risk factors was shared by all classes. The most common factor, male sex, was associated with four of the six high-DB classes. Overall, eight risk factors were associated with more than one trajectory class, whereas twelve were specific to one class or another. Yet, despite their lower proportion (40%), risk factors common among trajectory classes accounted for the greater part (63.2%) of the significant associations. This was particularly the case within co-occurring DBs trajectory classes, while the results for single-DB trajectory classes were mixed. Nevertheless, the results are overall consistent with a multifinality process (Cicchetti & Rogosch, 1996), where different longitudinal patterns of children’s high-DB across the preschool years are related to a core of common risk factors in the prenatal to early postnatal period.» (p. 446) In addition, «children of the PA [physical agression] trajectory class in the present study had more siblings and a family environment more likely to include family dysfunction, observed early household adversity, maternal adult CPs [conduct problems] and lower frequency of reading to the child (indexing maternal positive parenting; Mendelsohn et al., 2018).» (p. 447)