Référence bibliographique 
Riazi, Negin, A., Blanchette, Sébastien, Trudeau, François, Larouche, Richard, Tremblay, Mark S. et Faulkner, Guy. 2019. «Correlates of Children’s Independent Mobility in Canada: A Multi-Site Study ». International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 16, no 16, p. 1-14.
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«The aim of this study was to examine factors influencing CIM [children’s independent mobility] amongst three distinctly different sites across Canada each with varying urbanization (urban, suburban, rural) and SES [socioeconomic status] (high vs. low) environments.» (p. 7-8)
L’échantillon total est composé de 1699 dyades parent-enfant provenant de trois villes (Ottawa, Vancouver et Trois-Rivières). L’échantillon de parents est composé de 1375 femmes et de 324 hommes.
Type de traitement des données :
Results show that «children’s individual characteristics, specifically grade level in school and gender, were significantly associated with CIM […]. [As a] child gains maturity, knowledge, and pertinent skills, parents feel more comfortable letting the child roam independently. Also, children’s gender predicted CIM such that boys were more likely to have higher levels of CIM […]. [Moreover, language] spoken at home [English of French] was significantly negatively associated with CIM. [The authors also found that several] social environmental factors were significantly associated with both girls’ and boys’ independent mobility. Parents’ perceptions and concerns regarding traffic danger, crime, and dangerous crossings were, unsurprisingly, negatively associated with CIM.» (p. 8) «Overall, the strongest correlate of CIM, even after stratification by child gender, was location […]. CIM was lower in Ottawa and Vancouver compared to Trois-Rivières. While populations in these locations [may] influence CIM (e.g., population density), other factors like the social and cultural differences should be considered. […] Additionally, as a multi-cultural country, Canada is home to a diverse array of people, especially in hubs likes Ottawa and Vancouver, and therefore encompasses a range of cultural and social norms. This is reflected by the diversity of languages spoken at the two larger sites, Vancouver and Ottawa, compared to Trois-Rivières.»(p. 9) «Secondary analyses (not reported here) found no significant associations between site and parents’ perceptions of informal social control, traffic concerns, and stranger danger. The differences in CIM by site may stem from social and cultural differences.» (p. 9)