Référence bibliographique 
Dubois-Comtois, Karine, Suffren, Sabrina, St-Laurent, Diane, Milot, Tristan et Lemelin, Jean-Pascal. 2021. «Child Psychological Functioning During the COVID-19 Lockdown: An Ecological, Family-Centered Approach ». Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 42, no 7, p. 532-539.
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«The first objective of this study is to evaluate, through parent and child reports, how sociodemographic characteristics and various aspects of parent well-being, family functioning, parent-child relationship, and child characteristics are related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children aged 9 to 12 years during the COVID-19 lockdown in the province of Quebec, Canada. [The] second objective of this study is to assess whether sociodemographic, family, parent, parent-child, and child characteristics are related to child anxiety toward COVID-19.» (p. 533)
Authors «expected that proximal factors, such as the parent-child relationship and child characteristics, would be more strongly related to externalizing and internalizing behavior problems than more distal factors, such as sociodemographic characteristics, parent well-being, or family functioning.» (p. 533)
The sample «consisted of 144 parents and their child (131 mothers and 13 fathers) with a mean age of 40.1 years […]. The mean child age was 10.44 years […], and 51.4% (n = 74) were boys. […] Families came from 14 of the 17 administrative regions in the province of Quebec and lived in metropolitan, suburban, or rural areas, indicating sample diversity in geographic location.» (p. 534)
Type de traitement des données :
The «findings generally confirmed theoretical assumptions from several familial and developmental models that proximal variables (at the parent-child or child levels) are important factors related to child adaptation, but other, more distal factors (at the parent or family levels) were also significantly associated with child psychological functioning. These results also echo those found in studies with children living in low-income or maltreating families or having experienced mass trauma, suggesting that under various stressors, the parent-child relationship is an important factor related to child psychological functioning. Such observations are relevant because they highlight factors that may accentuate child vulnerabilities in times of pandemic and also shed light on potential intervention targets. The results showed that higher internalizing problems in children were related to greater depressive symptoms in parents, lower child attachment security to parents, and greater aversion to aloneness in children, with a larger effect size with attachment security than with parent depressive symptoms. The results on externalizing behavior problems indicated that more problems were associated with more family dysfunction and chaos and lower attachment security to parents, all of these variables showing similar effect sizes. Finally, the results on child anxiety toward COVID-19 showed that more anxiety was associated with greater parent anxiety toward COVID-19 and more child aversion to aloneness, both of these variables showing similar effect sizes.» (p. 537)