Référence bibliographique 
Tuerk, Carola, Anderson, Vicki, Bernier, Annie et Beauchamp, Miriam H. 2021. «Social Competence in Early Childhood: An Empirical Validation of the SOCIAL Model ». Journal of Neuropsychology, vol. 15, no 3, p. 477-499.
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«[T]his study aimed to test the comprehensive scope of the SOCIAL [SOcio-Cognitive Integration of Abilities modeL] model in typically developing preschool children (TDC) and to explore factors associated with SC [social competence] in the preschool years.» (p. 479)
«The present study uses a convenience sample drawn from a prospective, longitudinal research project […].» (p. 479) «The original study aimed to document cognitive and social outcomes of early childhood traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Participants were followed at 6 (time point 1 [T1]), 18 (time point 2 [T2]), and 30 (time point 3 [T3]) months post-injury. For the purposes of the current paper, only data from T2 and T3 for the two typically developing comparison groups (TDC, children with orthopaedic injuries [OI]) were used to explore predictors of SC.» (p. 480) «Children with OI (defined as a limb trauma leading to a final diagnosis of simple fracture, sprain, contusion or unspecified trauma to an extremity) were recruited in a single, tertiary care, paediatric emergency department between 2011 and 2015. TDC participants were recruited via advertisements and pamphlets distributed in urban daycare centres. At T1, all participants were between 24 and 66 months old.» (p. 480) «The sample consisted of 103 children (52 boys, 51 girls).» (p. 485) All the families were from Québec.
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The results of the study show that «[f[or internal factors, female sex, older age, better physical health, and lower temperamental negative affect predicted better SC. When external influences were included, better family functioning, older age, and lower temperamental negative affect significantly predicted better SC.» (p. 489) More specifically, «positive family functioning, reflected in few marital conflicts, positive communication, adaptive problem-solving strategies, affective involvement and responsiveness, was associated with better SC […]. Family factors are particularly important in the early years of life as children spend most of their time with their parents. Indeed, parents play a predominant role in shaping their children’s first interpersonal interactions and their developmental course during early childhood, and early caregiving characteristics influence the way children acquire, affective coping strategies and adequate social behaviours […].» (p. 491-492)