Early Developmental Crime Prevention Forged Through Knowledge Translation: A Window into a Century of Prevention Experiments

Early Developmental Crime Prevention Forged Through Knowledge Translation: A Window into a Century of Prevention Experiments

Early Developmental Crime Prevention Forged Through Knowledge Translation: A Window into a Century of Prevention Experiments

Early Developmental Crime Prevention Forged Through Knowledge Translation: A Window into a Century of Prevention Experimentss

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Référence bibliographique [21535]

Welsh, Brandon C. et Tremblay, Richard E. 2021. «Early Developmental Crime Prevention Forged Through Knowledge Translation: A Window into a Century of Prevention Experiments ». Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, vol. 7, p. 1-16.

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Fiche synthèse

1. Objectifs


Intentions :
«This article set out to begin to develop an understanding of knowledge translation of early developmental crime prevention, with a focus on the role of experiments in identifying causal mechanisms and contributing to the evidence base for improving the life chances of at-risk children and families.» (p. 11)

2. Méthode


Échantillon/Matériau :
Authors made a review of prevention experiments. Their «starting point was the Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study and its inspiration for another pioneering experiment, the Montréal Longitudinal-Experimental Study, followed by a new phase of developmental prevention experiments. It is through this lineage of prevention experiments, albeit by no means direct, that [they] can begin to develop an understanding of knowledge translation at work.» (p. 11)

Type de traitement des données :
Réflexion critique

3. Résumé


The studies cited in this article «helped to establish the idea that there are strong intergenerational mechanisms involved in the development of antisocial behavior. It has now become clear that imitation of parent’s behavior and poor parenting are not the only intergenerational mechanisms involved. [For example, studies] with twins have […] shown strong genetic effects on the ability to control physical aggression as early as two years of age […], while epigenetic studies (control of gene expression) are showing that the genes transmitted from parents to children can be affected by the parent’s behavior before, during, and after pregnancy […].» (p. 11-12) More specifically, the Montreal’s study shows that «[l]ongitudinal studies beginning during pregnancy or at birth have now shown that behavior problems do not start in kindergarten or in elementary or secondary school. The most serious cases of behavior problems start during early childhood. It has been clearly shown that the frequency of physical aggression peaks between 2 and 4 years of age. Most children learn to control these natural tendencies […], but those who do not learn before school entry tend to live in families with numerous problems and are at higher risk of behavior problems from early childhood to adolescence […]. From this perspective, it appears reasonable to offer preventive interventions that begin during pregnancy.» (p. 9)