Référence bibliographique 
Meyer, Jess M. 2019. «(Not) Working to Sleep: Employment’s Contribution to Gender and Socioeconomic Sleep Differences». Thèse de doctorat, Evanston (Ilinois), Northwestern University, Département de sociologie.
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This thesis by articles analyses «sleep in a series of specific social contexts to examine how these contexts shape gender and socioeconomic differences in sleep. [Author pays] particular attention to variation in employment and employment policy contexts. [The] first empirical chapter [tests] whether gender differences in parents’ sleep narrowed after a change in macro-level employment policy—specifically, after introduction of dedicated paternity leave in the Canadian province of Quebec.» (p. 3) Seul cet article fera l’objet de cette fiche.
The first hypothesis supposes that «QPIP [Quebec Parental Insurance Plan] implementation [is] associated with a narrowing of the gender gap in sleep duration between mothers and fathers of young children.» (p. 42) The second hypothesis predicts that «QPIP implementation [is] associated with decreased gender differences between mothers and fathers in the probability of interrupting sleep to provide child care.» (p. 43)
«This analysis uses data from the Public Use Microdata Files of Cycles 19 and 24 of the Statistics Canada General Social Survey (GSS), collected in 2005 and 2010, respectively.» (p. 45) The «primary sample includes 2,986 mothers and 2,414 fathers. [It] includes 80 fathers and 99 mothers who were likely eligible for QPIP, as they lived in Quebec in 2010. In supplementary analysis of parents living with children zero-to-two years old, I include an additional wave of GSS data from 2015, raising the number of eligible parents to 146 fathers and 167 mothers.» (p. 46-47)
Type de traitement des données :
«Consistent with [the] first hypothesis, after implementation of the Quebec Parental Insurance Plan, fathers spent more time sleeping, reducing the gender gap in sleep duration. Results suggest that a reduction in fathers’ employment hours might explain a portion of QPIP’s positive association with fathers’ sleep duration, which would align with the idea that compositional differences contribute to gender variation in sleep duration. An increase in fathers’ sleep duration might help explain findings connecting paternity leave use with better health outcomes [...]. In contrast, gender differences in sleep interruption did not narrow under QPIP. This could be related to the fact that even after QPIP introduction, women take substantially longer parental leaves than men do—on average, around 40 weeks longer [...]. Additionally, mothers of young children worked fewer hours than fathers, even after QPIP implementation. Still, [the] results raise the possibility that gender differences in sleep interruption expanded after QPIP implementation (including in models that control for employment hours), supporting the idea that compositional differences have less explanatory power for gender differences in sleep interruption than sleep duration.» (p. 58-59)