Référence bibliographique 
Ribner, Andrew, Harvey, Elizabeth, Gervais, Roger et Fitzpatrick, Caroline. 2019. «Explaining School Entry Math and Reading Achievement in Canadian Children Using the Opportunity-Propensity Framework ». Learning and Instruction, vol. 59, p. 65-75.
«The purpose of the present study is to independently replicate and expand the Opportunity-Propensity [O-P] Framework model with a population-based representative sample of Canadian children living in the province of Quebec.» (p. 67) The O-P model is a framework that predicts factors which influence academic success. Some family variables are thus analyzed.
«Based on previous evaluations of the O-P framework, we expect the following hypotheses to be supported by our analyses: [T]he antecedent, opportunity, and propensity factors will fit the original and newly proposed predictors of school readiness in a nationally-representative sample of children in Canada; [t]he antecedent factor will be indirectly related to achievement through the opportunity and propensity factors; [t]he opportunity factor will be indirectly related to achievement through the propensity factor; and [t]he propensity factor will be directly linked to achievement.» (p. 67)
«The present study draws upon children followed from birth through adulthood as a part of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD). […] The sample originates from a randomly selected, stratified sample of 2837 infants born between 1997 and 1998 in the province of Quebec, Canada. […] The retained sample of 2120 children and their families, representing 82% of the eligible target population, is considered representative of all singleton births that took place in the province between 1997 and 1998.» (p. 67)
Type de traitement des données :
Results show «that the O-P framework provided a good fit to our data and explained a large proportion of the variance in kindergarten math and verbal skills. [Moreover,] antecedent factor had an indirect effect on achievement through the opportunity and propensity factors, and the opportunity factor was indirectly related to the school readiness outcomes through its association with the propensity factor.» (p. 70) For example, «[b]etter child health and higher parental expectations made small positive contributions to the antecedent factor. In contrast, gestational smoking, having a low birth weight, and being racially non-white made small negative contributions to the antecedent factor. In the present study, gestational smoking represents an extension of the O-P model.» (p. 71) «Parental behaviors in terms of responsiveness and involvement, child participation in sports, and close teachers-child relationships also positively contributed to the opportunity factor. Finally, hours spent watching television, parental hostility, and conflict with teachers, classroom behavior problems and arriving at school tired were all negatively related to the opportunity factor. These modifiable features of children’s early experiences all represent extensions of the O-P framework and therefore contribute to our understanding of which new variables to target with preventive intervention and enrichment programs.» (p. 72)