Référence bibliographique 
Dion, Jacinthe, Paquette, Linda, Daigneault, Isabelle, Godbout, Natacha et Hébert, Martine. 2018. «Validation of the French Version of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) Among Samples of French and Indigenous Youth ». Mindfulness, vol. 9, no 2, p. 645-653.
«[T]he objectives of the two current studies were to validate the CAMM [Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure] for French-Canadian youth. Study 1 (n = 589) used an exploratory factor analysis to assess the factorial structure of the French CAMM. It also assessed floor/ceiling effects, its internal consistency and construct validity with a large sample of urban youth, as well as testing its 2-week and 3-month test-retest reliability. In study 2 (n = 311), a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted, and the floor/ ceiling effects, internal consistency of scores, and construct validity were assessed with a rural ethnically diverse sample of youth from low socioeconomic settings. We also investigated gender differences in both studies.» (p. 646) Exposure to family problems was measured in both studies.
For the first study, from «the 794 eligible students recruited from two French urban high schools located in Canada, 767 completed questionnaires at T1, 694 at T2, and 693 at T3. At T1, students were aged from 15 to 18 years and mostly in grades 10 and 11.» (p. 646) For the second study, «311 adolescents (51.1% girls and 48.9% boys) aged from 14 to 19 years and in grades 9, 10, or 11 from two French-Canadian rural schools completed self-reported questionnaires. […] Of these participants, 68 identified themselves as Indigenous, 177 as Caucasian, and 1 person did not answer this question.» (p. 649)
Type de traitement des données :
«Findings indicate that the one-factor solution found in previous studies held in two different samples, without significant gender differences in study 1 and with small gender differences in study 2 in favor of boys. Good internal consistency was also found in both studies, and the 2-week and 3-month test-retest reliability found in study 1 was adequate. […] In addition, the CAMM correlated with psychological functioning/symptoms in the expected direction. These findings are consistent with those found in previous validation studies of the CAMM in other […], as well as in other studies using the CAMM […]. The CAMM was also negatively correlated with traumas/family problems, adding to its divergent validity, which also mirrors the results of studies conducted in adult populations […].» (p. 650) In fact, the results of study 2 «suggest that adolescents exposed to a greater number of difficulties, including sexual abuse (as found in study 1) and various family problems such as family violence or abandonment, exhibit lower levels of mindfulness […]. Such difficulties, or interpersonal traumas, may lead to persistent psychosocial distress or a number of avoidant behaviors to respond to overwhelming aversive internal experiences. [….]. Contrary to study 1, boys reported slightly higher levels of mindfulness compared to girls. Future studies are thus needed to better understand gender differences in relation to mindfulness and to consider possible factors that might interact with gender, such as family support.» (p. 650)