Référence bibliographique 
Andreadakis, Eftichia, Joussemet, Mireille et Mageau, Geneviève A. 2018. «How to Support Toddlers’ Autonomy: Socialization Practices Reported by Parents ». Early Education and Development, vol. 30, no 3, p. 297-314.
«The main goal [of this study is] to explore a wide range of socialization practices that could be favored by parents who prioritize supporting their toddler’s autonomy when they have to ask their child to do something that is not pleasant.» (p. 300)
The authors «hypothesized that the AS [autonomy support] factor would include practices related to empathy, as parents of young children can show sensitivity and responsiveness, akin to AS […]. However, [the authors] had no specific prediction about the use of rationales, choices, and non-controlling language, as these may not all be developmentally appropriate for toddlers. Finally, [they] expected that some practices falling outside of the classical AS definition could be identified as autonomy-supportive, but no specific hypotheses were made in regard to the nature of these practices.» (p. 300)
«Participants were French-speaking parents of toddlers, principally recruited from daycare centers within the province of Québec (mainly in the Montréal area), Canada. Some participants were recruited via parent blogging websites and associations.» (p. 301) «A total of 182 parents participated in the study (145 mothers; 37 fathers). Only one parent per family was permitted to fill out the questionnaire.» (p. 301)
Type de traitement des données :
Regarding the results, the authors mention that «this study is informative by identifying manifestations of AS in a request-making context. In addition, the finding that AS toward toddlers is positively associated with toddlers’ internalization of rules is in line with SDT’s [self-determination theory] notion that optimal development is related to the support of psychological autonomy […]. This finding also suggests that AS is beneficial even with very young children, which corroborates the concept of AS being a universal psychological need […].» (p. 305) Also, «[a]utonomy-supportive parenting can best be described as the recognition and consideration of children’s unique needs, feelings, and perspectives […]. In the classical definition of AS […], the provision of empathy, rationales, choice, and the use of non-controlling language when making requests are key ingredients. According to the results of the present study, conveying empathy, giving personally meaningful (and age-appropriate) rationales as well as using a descriptive language seem pertinent when socializing toddlers.» (p. 308)