Increasing Earnings Inequality and the Gender Pay Gap in Canada: Prospects for Convergence

Increasing Earnings Inequality and the Gender Pay Gap in Canada: Prospects for Convergence

Increasing Earnings Inequality and the Gender Pay Gap in Canada: Prospects for Convergence

Increasing Earnings Inequality and the Gender Pay Gap in Canada: Prospects for Convergences

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Référence bibliographique [20677]

Fortin, Nicole M. 2019. «Increasing Earnings Inequality and the Gender Pay Gap in Canada: Prospects for Convergence ». Revue canadienne d’économique / Canadian Journal of Economics, vol. 52, no 2, p. 407-440.

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1. Objectifs


Intentions :
«The goal of the current paper is to document the gender convergence in pay in Canada and assess the prospects for future progress.» (p. 408)

2. Méthode


Échantillon/Matériau :
«[M]ost of the analysis draws on data from the public use files of Statistics Canada’s Labour Force Surveys (LFS) […]. Some analyses focusing on top earners appeal to data sources where the representation of these high income individuals is superior to that of the LFS, namely Statistics Canada’s confidential Longitudinal Worker File (LWF).» (p. 409-410)

Instruments :
Questionnaire

Type de traitement des données :
Analyse statistique

3. Résumé


«Analyses of the gender pay gap that account for the under-representation of women among top earners […] suggest that, moving forward, further reduction in the gap will have to come primarily from an increased representation of women among top earners. In light of these results, it is appropriate to revisit the potential effectiveness of existing Canadian public policies aimed directly at improving gender equality in pay.» (p. 422) The author takes the example of the Quebec pay equity policy with its other family-friendly policies: «First, a subsidized childcare system was introduced in 1997 (before the pay equity awards came into effect), but it became progressively available to a larger number of families over time […]. Second, in 2006, Quebec introduced its own maternal and paternal leave policy. The Quebec Parental Insurance Plan (QPIP) introduced an exclusive paternity leave (five weeks of paid leave for the father to use or lose), a 32-week parental leave to be shared by the parents in addition to an 18-week maternity leave. These rules imply that a maternal leave could be extended up to 50 weeks. As noted in the discussion above on the career costs of children, these family-friendly measures are likely consequential not only for the labour supply of women […] but also for the ability of women to return to full-time work after childbirth and their subsequent level of pay.» (p. 426)