Référence bibliographique 
Petit, Marie-Pier, Julien, Danielle et Chamberland, Line. 2017. «Negotiating Parental Designations Among Trans Parents’ Families: An Ecological Model of Parental Identity ». Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, vol. 4, no 3, p. 282-295.
«The objective of this study was to examine parental identity of trans adults through the lens of parental designations. Using the timing of childbirth (pre- or posttransition), we examined the parental designations used by trans parents and their family over time, the meanings attached to parental designations, and the factors perceived by the parents to have contributed to preferred parental designations.» (p. 284)
L’échantillon de cette étude est composé de 24 parents trans. «Fifteen parents had all their children before starting a transition (pretransition parents), and six parents had all their children after starting a transition (posttransition parents). […] Twenty-two participants lived in Québec, the two others lived in Ontario.» (p. 284)
Guide d’entretien semi-directif
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Analyse de contenu
«Consistent with previous small studies on parental terminology among families led by cis gay, cis lesbian, and trans parents […], this study found a large variability of designations among trans parents to refer to the three dimensions of parental identity (i.e., relational identity, child’s designations, and self-identity), from traditional designations (sometimes aligned with sex assigned at birth, sometime aligned with gender identity) to gender-neutral terms, or creative parental designations. […] The diversification of parental designations in this context stemmed from a large range of factors interacting with each other at the individual, dyadic, family, sociopolitical, and cultural levels, and underlines the importance of the timing of childbirth in determining gender-based parental identity. […] Our model suggests a more complex process among pretransition parents than among posttransition parents because for the formers, the negotiation occurred in the context of paternal/maternal roles initially enacted within a cis family configuration. As a result, pretransition parents emphasized the influence of proximal strains (i.e., biological, dyadic, and family) in the choice of parental designations. […] Conversely, for our posttransition parents, issues of parental designation were mostly related to the nonacknowledgment of their parental identity at distal levels (e.g., sociopolitical).» (p. 292)