Référence bibliographique 
Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle, Boivin, Michel, Lemelin, Jean-Pascal, Kovas, Yulia, Parent, Sophie, Séguin, Jean R., Vitaro, Frank, Tremblay, Richard E. et Dionne, Ginette. 2018. «Early Developmental Trajectories of Number Knowledge and Math Achievement From 4 to 10 Years: Low-Persistent Profile and Early-Life Predictors ». Journal of School Psychology, no 68, p. 84-98.
«We documented the developmental trajectories of NK [number knowledge] across the transition from preschool to elementary school, their predictive validity with respect to later math achievement, and the child and family early-life factors associated with low NK profiles.» (p. 84)
«[A]re there discrete patterns of developmental trajectories of NK? […] Does early NK predict later math achievement? […] To what extent can we predict a child’s trajectory of low NK from specific early cognitive and family predictors?» (p. 87)
«Participants were from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD), a longitudinal population-based study aimed at understanding the role of early childhood in later school adjustment and academic achievement. […] The present study focused on data relevant to the study aims and collected in infancy and the early school period.» (p. 87) «[A] total of 1597 children were included in the analysis.» (p. 90)
Type de traitement des données :
«Early development of NK was not linear, but rather varied in onset level and rate of progression during the transition from late preschool to school entry. Specifically, heterogeneity in children’s NK development was organized around a small Low-Increasing performing group (10%), a Moderate-Increasing group (39%), a Moderate-Fast Increasing group (32%) and a High-Increasing performing group (19%). […] As early as age 4, between-group differences in children’s level of NK were significant. These differences were maintained throughout the elementary school years, suggesting long-term prediction from early NK to later achievement. Of specific interest, children in the Low-Increasing trajectory fell well behind other children […] and the gap between these children and those in the other trajectories did not narrow during the course of the school years.» (p. 94) «Interestingly, even when controlling for early-life family factors, father diploma, but not mother diploma, still uniquely predicted low NK. Children of fathers with low educational background were more at risk of low NK, suggesting that fathers with high education might prevent the development of low numeracy and later mathematic difficulties. […] Beyond parental involvement, fathers with low education and their low NK child could share common vulnerability to poor cognitive abilities. […] Fathers’ expectancies regarding their children development was, however, not significantly associated to NK, whereas low mothers’ outcome expectancies were initially predictive to low NK trajectory.» (p. 94-95)