Référence bibliographique 
Ferrer, Ilyan, Brotman, Shari et Grenier, Amanda. 2017. «The Experiences of Reciprocity among Filipino Older Adults in Canada: Intergenerational, Transnational, and Community Considerations ». Journal of Gerontological Social Work, vol. 60, no 4, p. 313-327.
«In this article, we draw on data from an ethnographic study on the aging experiences of older Filipinos in Canada to highlight how care is lived by immigrant older people, their families, kin networks, and communities, across borders.» (p. 315)
«The sample of 18 older participants was comprised of 13 women and 5 men, ranging in age from 62 to 85. Within this sample, 13 participants provided financial support to their transnational families, and engaged in caring exchanges with their intergenerational families.» (p. 316-317) All participants were «members of the Filipino diaspora in Montreal, Canada.» (p. 316)
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«In the case of immigrant older adults, such as those from the Filipino community, caregiving is […] likely to develop in the context of reciprocity, whereby older adults and their families/communities give and receive care in multiple forms, and across diverse familial, fictive kin, local, and transnational boundaries. These reciprocal relationships reflect older people’s need for support and contribute to continued agency in providing care to families and community. Our research builds on a small but growing body of work on the local and intergenerational immigrant family as a primary site for reciprocal support— with children, grandchildren, and older adults all giving and receiving care on a daily basis […]. Co-habitation is a means through which the intergenerational family contends with scarce financial resources, time restrictions, and the need for physical and social support. Care is also exchanged across borders through financial remittances and visits to the homeland. Older Filipinos are active agents in these reciprocal exchanges, with financial and other support responding to scarcity and adversity across multiple sites (both in their adopted countries and in the homeland) and across multiple generations.» (p. 324)