Référence bibliographique 
Fontaine, Nathalie, Carbonneau, René, Barker, Edward D., Vitaro, Frank, Hébert, Martine, Côté, Silvana M., Nagin, Daniel S., Zoccolillo, Mark et Tremblay, Richard E. 2008. «Girls’ Hyperactivity and Physical Aggression During Childhood Predict Adjustment Problems in Early Adulthood: A 15-year Longitudinal Study ». Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 65, no 3, p. 320-328.
« To describe the joint developmental trajectories of female hyperactivity and physical aggression during childhood and to examine the extent to which high trajectories of hyperactivity and physical aggression predict adjustment problems in early adulthood. » (p. 320)
« Based on studies of girls’ and of boys’ childhood behavior problems, we hypothesized that most girls would show decreasing frequencies of hyperactivity and physical aggression as a function of age, despite a relatively small group who would exhibit higher levels of 1 or both patterns throughout childhood (ie, aged 6-12 years). Similar to boys, we also expected developmental overlap between hyperactivity and physical aggression in girls, so that girls high in one behavior would most likely be high in the other behavior. We hypothesized that girls who followed joint trajectories of high hyperactivity (HH) and high physical aggression (HPA) in childhood would be at highest risk of substance use problems, criminal behaviors, aggression in intimate relationships, early pregnancy, low educational attainment, and welfare assistance at the age of 21 years. We also hypothesized that girls in the HH-only group and in the HPA-only group would be more at risk for adverse outcomes in early adulthood compared with girls who did not have high levels of hyperactivity or physical aggression in childhood. » (p. 321)
« In this study, we focused on the early adulthood outcomes. The sample was predominantly white and French speaking. […] Of the 1390 females involved in the longitudinal study, 881 […] decided to participate in the early adulthood assessment and had complete information. » (p. 321)
Type de traitement des données :
« The co-occurrence of hyperactivity and conduct problems in childhood seems to increase the risk of early adulthood adjustment problems in males. However, little is known about this topic in females. […] ». (p. 320) The results of this study show that: « [b]etween the ages of 6 and 12 years, the frequency of hyperactivity and physical aggression tended to decrease for most girls. Those on a trajectory of high hyperactivity (HH) and high physical aggression (HPA) and a trajectory of HH alone were significantly more likely to report nicotine use problems […], mutual psychological aggression in intimate relationships […], and low educational attainment […] compared with the other females at the age of 21 years. Only the HH-HPA females were significantly more likely to report physical aggression […] and psychological aggression […] in intimate relationships, early pregnancy […], and welfare assistance […] compared with the other females. » (p. 320) The conclusions of the authors is that: « [e]lementary school girls with elevated levels of hyperactivity should be targeted for intensive prevention programs. These interventions should take into account the presence or absence of HPA. » (p. 320)