Référence bibliographique 
Waite, Sean. 2016. «Essays on the Size and Sources of Gender and Sexual Minority Wage Gaps in Canada». Thèse de doctorat, Montréal, Université McGill, Département de sociologie.
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Le premier des trois articles de cette thèse, qui fait l’objet de cette fiche, «explore […] le rôle que le mariage et la parentalité exercent quant aux différences de gains observés entre les femmes et les hommes qui travaillent dans les mêmes domaines.» (p. vi)
«This study fills these gaps in the literature by answering the following research questions. First, how has the gender wage gap at the aggregate level narrowed for all women since the 1980’s? Second, has the gender wage gap attenuated in the same manner for women in law, medicine, architecture, engineering and urban planning, and in management? Third, how does the gender wage gap vary by age and across these occupations? Fourth, what are the mechanisms contributing to the gender wage gap in each of these occupations? Fifth, has the effect of these mechanisms changed over time? Lastly, are there differences in returns to marriage and parenthood across these groups and have they changed over time?» (p. 26)
L’étude est basée sur les données des recensements canadiens de 1981 à 2011.
Type de traitement des données :
«This study has found that motherhood penalties have declined as a source of disadvantage for women working full-time in highly paid occupations; however, penalties have increased slightly for all women in the aggregate. In the 1980’s and early 1990’s, there were large motherhood penalties for women working as architects, engineers and urban planners, as well as senior managers. Those employed in these occupations tend to work in large firms that may have had institutional and organizational practices that were less amenable to working mothers. […] However, the finding that motherhood penalties have been eliminated in recent years suggests that institutional and organizational changes may have reduced the disadvantage of motherhood for women in some highly paid occupations. [Also], marriage premiums for men have declined since 1981 but remain statistically significant for all men, except those with medical and other related degrees. Marriage premiums were highest for all men at the aggregate level and those working as lawyers and in management occupations in 1981. Since the 1980’s, marriage premiums for men have generally declined except in management and architecture and engineering occupations. Perhaps the declining return and insignificance of marriage as a predictor of earnings for both men and women is the result of changes in family formation more broadly, such as delaying marriage, choosing not to marry altogether and the rise of divorce.» (p. 66)