Référence bibliographique 
French, Taylor N. 2016. «The Long-Lasting Effects of Parental Criticism on Adult Error Processing». Mémoire de maîtrise, Montréal, Université McGill, Département de psychologie.
Accéder à la publication
«[T]he major aim of the present study was to assess whether the association between harsh parenting (parental criticism, specifically) and threat sensitivity persists from early developmental stages into adulthood.» (p. 16-17) «Another aim of the study was to examine whether or not [the] proposed enhancement in ERN [error-related negativity] magnitude brought about by parental criticism would be potentially beneficial to the individual. Thus, we also assessed any possible relation between improved task performance and both self-reported parental criticism in childhood, and ERN/Pe [error positivity] magnitude. Additionally, […] relationships between grade point average (GPA) and both parental criticism and ERN/Pe magnitude were also assessed.» (p. 17)
In relation to the first objective, «[w]e hypothesized that retrospectively-assessed parental criticism would be related to an enhanced ERN magnitude in an adult sample.» (p. 17) Furthermore, «[s]ince previously literature has demonstrated a disconnect between threat reactivity (i.e., ERN magnitude) and behavioral indices of error processing (Hajcak et al., 2003), we hypothesized that no positive relationship between markers of success/task performance with ERN/Pe magnitude or self-reported parental criticism would be found.» (p. 17)
«[T]he final analysis consisted of 32 participants (Mage = 20.28, SD = 1.37), with an age range of 17 to 24. Of these 32 participants, 23 were female.» (p. 18) Participants were all undergraduate students at McGill University, in Montreal.
Type de traitement des données :
«The current study demonstrated that parental criticism is associated with an increased ΔERN [difference in the error-related negativity], consistent with previous evidence that learning experiences that make errors more aversive result in an increased ΔERN (Riesel et al., 2012; Weinberg et al., 2016). Furthermore, a positive relationship between ΔPe [difference in the error positivity] and post-error slowing was observed; however, no measures of error-related brain activity were related to increased task performance, or external markers of success in an undergraduate sample. Ultimately, the results of the present study convey the potential for harsh parenting practices to influence neural indices of error reactivity, such that adults who are victim of punitive parenting styles in childhood may express enhanced early error-related brain activity. Additionally, the current findings suggest that this increase in error-related brain activity may have no beneficial effects, and that enhanced error reactivity may be a potential biomarker for adverse levels of threat sensitivity.» (p. 30)