Référence bibliographique 
Feldstein, Julia. 2016. «Early Childhood Characteristics, Parenting, and Contextual Influences on Preschoolers’ Behaviour and Developing Competencies: An Examination of Behavioural, Academic, and Social Adjustment». Thèse de doctorat, Montréal, Université Concordia, Département de psychologie.
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«The present studies were designed to examine early emerging behaviour problems, temperament, parenting, maternal characteristics, and contextual influences on children’s developing competencies in a pooled sample of mother-child dyads, as well as links to academic and social adjustment following preschoolers’ transition to elementary school.» (p. iii) «The [first] study investigated the nature of the relationships between child internalizing behaviour, temperament, parenting, maternal emotionality, and family environment to early emerging EP [externalizing problems].» (p. 22) «The [second] study was designed to investigate the nature of the relationships and predictive capacity of early childhood temperament (emotion reactivity, activity-level) and problem behaviour (IP [internalizing problems], EP), positive and negative (punitive, critical) parenting, maternal expression of negative emotionality, and family socioeconomic stress […].» (p. 117)
Both studies used samples from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project and the Daycare and Preschool Adjustment Study, two studies conducted in Montreal, as well as the Shame in Childhood Study, conducted in Winnipeg, Manitoba. In the first study, «[t]he integrated sample comprised 523 preschoolers ranging in age from 2.1 to 6.1 years (M = 3.95 years, SD = .80) and their mothers […].» (p. 34) In the second study, which took place approximately 3 years later, «children were between 6.62 and 11.67 years of age (M = 8.32, SD = .83) and had completed at least one year of primary school [...]. Overall, the final, integrated sample at follow-up comprised 382 children and their mothers [...].» (p. 119)
Type de traitement des données :
Results from Study 1 show that «there was considerable overlap demonstrated with findings from Study 2 […]. More specifically, results from both studies indicated that heightened EP in early and middle childhood was consistently predicted by early childhood temperament (emotion reactivity, activity-level), less positive, more punitive or critical parenting, and lower family SES [socioeconomic status]. The enduring influence of these variables on children’s problem behaviour over time underscores the salience of the preschool period in setting the stage for future developmental outcomes. It is important to note that results in both studies, not only revealed the risks associated with the presence of punitive, critical parenting, but also those associated with a relative absence of positive parenting. In addition to elucidating the differential effects of positive and negative parenting constructs on children’s developmental outcomes, findings further revealed the protective effects of positive parenting for children with high IP in buffering against the development of attention problems at school age.» (p. 207)