Référence bibliographique 
Lange, Shannon, Probst, Charlotte, Quere, Mathilde, Rehm, Jürgen et Popova, Svetlana. 2015. «Alcohol Use, Smoking and their Co-Occurrence during Pregnancy Among Canadian Women, 2003 to 2011/12 ». Addictive Behaviors, vol. 50, p. 102-109.
«[T]he objectives of the current study were to 1) obtain an estimate of the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Canada by province and territory from 2003–2011/12, 2) determine if the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy has increased or decreased over time, 3) investigate whether smoking status (i.e., being a daily or occasional smoker during pregnancy; having a lifetime history of smoking, but not smoking during pregnancy; and being a lifetime nonsmoker) is differentially associated with alcohol use during pregnancy, and 4) examine the predictors of alcohol use only, smoking only, and the co-occurrence of alcohol use and smoking during pregnancy.» (p. 103)
L’échantillon est composé de 22962 mères canadiennes qui ont participé à cinq cycles (2003, 2005, 2007/08, 2009/10, 2011/12) de l’Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes.
Type de traitement des données :
«The weighted pooled prevalence of smoking during pregnancy among women who had given birth in the past five years was estimated to be 14.3% in Canada between 2003 and 2011/12; of these women 52.5% (2141) smoked daily and 47.5% (1936) smoked occasionally. […] The prevalence was the lowest in British Columbia at 9.0% and the highest in the territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut; combined) at 39.9%. There was an overall effect of cycle (i.e., year of survey) in the following provinces: Alberta (Λ = 18.1, P = 0.0001), Ontario (Λ = 26.1, P = 0.0001), and Quebec (Λ = 16.8, P = 0.0002). However, when taking the earliest year as the reference category (i.e., 2003), the pairwise comparisons indicated a significant decrease in the odds of smoking during pregnancy in Quebec from 2003 to 2005 and from 2003 to 2011 only […].» (p. 104)