Référence bibliographique 
Kohen, Dafna, Oliver, Lisa et Pierre, Fritz. 2009. «Examining the Effects of Schools and Neighbourhoods on the Outcomes of Kindergarten Children in Canada ». International Journal of Speech Language Pathology, vol. 11, no 5, p. 404-418.
« The primary objective was to examine the influence of child / family, school, and neighbourhood on Kindergarten children’s outcomes. » (p. 404)
« 1. What is the contribution of child / family, schools, and neighbourhood level variability on children’s preschool outcomes? 2. What features of children and families, schools, and the neighbourhood are particularly salient for Kindergarten outcomes? » (p. 407)
« The sample consisted of a total of 2743 children attending 181 Kindergarten schools in seven Canadian cities (South Eastman, MB; Hampton, NB; Abottsford, BC; Mississauga, ON; Niagara, ON; Saskatoon, SK; and Montreal, PQ) and living in 272 neighbourhoods. » (p. 408)
Type de traitement des données :
« Standardized measures were used to assess verbal (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised), developmental (Who Am I?), and behavioural (Inattention to Task) outcomes. Social and emotional outcomes were assessed by teachers (Early Development Instrument) and hyperactivity, aggression, and anxiety by parent ratings. Analyses used cross-nested hierarchical linear models. Child / family, school and neighbourhood factors were important with child / family factors explaining the most variability. Boys and children from low income families were associated with poorer Who Am I? scores and higher behaviour problem ratings. Over and above these, school level differences explained more variability than did differences in neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods characterized by low income and education were associated with poorer verbal and behavioural outcomes. The number of immigrants was associated with lower verbal, and higher aggression and anxiety scores, but also with higher developmental scores. The school environment, as compared to the neighbourhood, had a larger impact on Kindergarten children’s standardized, parent, and teacher reported outcomes over and above child / family factors. Neighbourhood features such as levels of income, education, and immigrants were also influential. » (p. 404)