Référence bibliographique 
Lotfipour, Shahrdad, Ferguson, Eamonn, Léonard, Gabriel, Perron, Michel, Pike, Bruce, Richer, Louis, Séguin, Jean R., Toro, Roberto, Veillette, Suzanne, Pausova, Zdenka et Paus, Tomas. 2009. «Orbitofrontal Cortex and Drug Use during Adolescence: Role of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Smoking and BDNF Genotype ». Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 66, no 11, p. 1244-1252.
The objective of this study is « [t]o evaluate the involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in mediating the relationship between PEMCS and substance use. » (p. 1244)
The data came from « [a] French Canadian founder population of the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec, Canada. The behavioral data set included 597 adolescents (275 sibships; 12-18 years of age), half of whom were exposed in utero to maternal cigarette smoking. Analysis of cortical thickness and genotyping were performed using available data from 314 adolescents. » (p. 1244)
Type de traitement des données :
« Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking [PEMCS] is associated with an increased likelihood of substance use. Among exposed adolescents, the likelihood of drug experimentation correlates with the degree of OFC thinning. In nonexposed adolescents, the thickness of the OFC increases as a function of the number of drugs tried. The latter effect is moderated by a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype (Val66Met). […] We speculate that PEMCS interferes with the development of the OFC and, in turn, increases the likelihood of drug use among adolescents. In contrast, we suggest that, among nonexposed adolescents, drug experimentation influences the OFC thickness via processes akin to experience-induced plasticity. » (p. 1244)